Case Studies - Restless Earth

Revision Cards for Case Studies for AQA Geography Spec A - Restless Earth

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Give an example of a) a destructive margin, b) a c

  • Along the east coast of Japan
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge
  • San Adreas Fault
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Give an example of a fold mountain range, its loca

  • The Alps
  • Central Europe, stretches from France to Slovenia.
  • Formed 30 million years ago by a collision of the African plate and the European plate.
  • Around 12 million.
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Give 5 Uses of The Alps:

  • Tourism - 100 million tourists visit the Alps each year.
  • H.E.P. - The narrow valleys make it useful for HEP production and the electricity is used locally and exported.
  • Forestry - Scotts Pine is common in the Alps as it is more resilient and fast growing. It is logged and sold to make things like furniture.
  • Farming - Goats and sheep are often grazed in the higher slopes. On gentler slopes crops can be planted and vine yards are often present on sunnier slopes.
  • Mining - Salt, iron, copper, gold and silver are all mined in the Alps although in recent years it has declined due to cheaper sources elsewhere.
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Give three examples of tourist activities in the a


  • Rock climbing
  • Hiking
  • Mountain Biking


  • Skiing
  • Snowboarding
  • Ice Climbing
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How have people adapted to the a) Steep Relief, b)

a) Steep Relief

  • Goats are farmed in high steep slopes because they are well adapted.
  • Trees and man made defences are used to protect against avalanches and rock slides.
  • Slopes are terraced to plant crops.

b) Poor Soils

  • Animals are grazed where crops cant be grown.
  • Sometimes animal manure is used as a natural fertiliser.

c) Limited Communications

  • Roads have been built over passes.
  • Tunnels are built through mountains.
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Give an example of a shield volcano eruption and i

  • Nyiragongo volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • January 2002
  • Movement of plates along the East African Rift Valley
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What were the primary impacts of this eruption?

  • Lava flowed across the Goma airport runway and spilt the town in half
  • Lava destryed homes, buildings, roads and pipes.
  • There were explosions in fuel stores and power plants
  • 45 people were killed
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What were the secondary impacts of this eruption?

  • Half a million people fled from Goma to Rwanda
  • No shelter, electricity or clean water
  • Diseases spread
  • Aid was distributed
  • Problems with looting
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Give an example of a composite volcano eruption an

  • Mt St Helens, Washington, USA
  • May 1980
  • It was caused by the Juan de Fuca plate moving eastwords towards the North American plate and being subducted
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What were the primary impacts of this eruption?

  • Largest landslide ever recorded fell at speeds up to 300 kph
  • Earthquake of 5.1 on the Richter Scale
  • 1.5 billion cubic yards of debris blown into the sky
  • 13,000 feet blown off the top of the mountain.
  • Ash released 15 miles up into atmosphere
  • 57 killed due to blast and release of poisonous gases
  • All living things up to 27km north of the crater wiped out
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What were the secondary impacts of this eruption?

  • Logging camps destroyed
  • Ash circled the Earth in 15 days
  • Ash fell into rivers and killed fish and filled lakes
  • Communications such as roads and railways damaged
  • 500 year olf trees uprooted or killed - forests destroyed
  • No electricity or telephones
  • Farming crops and livestocks lost
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What were the immediate responses to this eruption

  • Helicopters used for search and rescue
  • Ash cleared from roads to allow services to be reached
  • Masks worn by residents of near by towns
  • Search for bodies and survivors.
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What were the long-term responses to this eruption

  • Buildings and bridges rebuilt
  • Draninage looked at to prevent flooding form debris
  • Re-planting of forests
  • Regeneration of wildlife and vegetation
  • Tourism industry rebuilt
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Give an example of a supervolcano and describe it:

  • Yellowstone, Yellowstone National Park, North America
  • A magma chamber believed to be 80 km long, 40 km wide and 8 km deep.
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What would be the effects of this supervolcano eru

  • 10,000 square km of land would be destroyed
  • 87,000 people would be killed
  • 15 cm of ash would cover the areas within 1000km radius
  • 1 in 3 people affected would die
  • Transport, electricty and water would be unavailable to many
  • There is a high probabilty of lahars
  • Global climates will change due to ash being blown in the atmosphere.
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Give an example of an earthquake in a HEDC:

  • L'Aquila, Italy
  • April 2009
  • 6.3 on Richter Scale
  • Caused by movement along a crack in the African plate at a destructive margin.
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What preperations were in place for this country?

  • Laws on construction standards
  • Civil Protection Department trained volunteers to help in rescue operations
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What were the primary effects of this earthquake?

  • Around 290 deaths, mostly from collapsed buildings
  • Hundreds injured
  • Buildings damaged or destroyed
  • Thousands homeless
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What were the secondary effects of this earthquake

  • Aftershocks hampered rescue efforts and caused more damage
  • Fires in some collapsed buildings caused more damage
  • Broken water pipes caused a landslide.
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What were the immediate responses?

  • Camps set up for homeless with supplies
  • Emergency services sent to rescue survivors
  • Cranes and diggers used to remove rubble
  • International teams sent it
  • Money provided by government and bills suspended.
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What were the long-term responses?

  • New town promised to be built to replace L'Aquila
  • New buildings being built are much more 'earthquake-proof'
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Give an example or an earthquake in a LEDC:

  • Kashmir, Pakistan
  • October 2005
  • 7.6 on the Richter Scale
  • Caused by movement along a crack in the Eurasian plate at a destructive margin.
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What preperations were put in place by the country

  • No local disaster planning
  • Buildings were not designed to resist earthquakes
  • Communications were poor with few roads, poorly constructed.
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What were the Primary Effects?

  • 80,000 deaths, mostly from collapsed buildings
  • Hundreds of thousands injured
  • Entire villages and thousands of buildings destroyed
  • 3 million left homeless
  • Water and electricity cut off.
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What were the secondary effects?

  • Landslides burying people and buildings and blocking access.
  • Diseases spread
  • Freezing winter conditions meant more casualties and made rescue more difficult.
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What were the immediate responses?

  • Help did not reach many areas for days or even weeks
  • People rescued by hand, no equipment or help from emergency services.
  • Tents, blankets and medical services were distributed but not to all areas affected.
  • International aid offered.
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What were the long term responses?

  • 40,000 people relocated
  • Money given to people to rebuild their houses etc by themselves.
  • New health centres set up
  • Training has been provided to help rebuild more buildings as earthquake resistant.
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Give an example of a tsunami:

  • Indian ocean
  • 26th December 2004
  • A 9.1 magnitude earthquake off the west coast of Sumatra because of movement of the Indo-Australian plate being subducted under the Eurasian plate.
  • There was no early warning system in place
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What were the primary effects of this tsunami?

  • It affected Indonesia, Thailand, India and Sri Lanka
  • 230,000 people were killed.
  • Towns and villages were completely destroyed leaving 1.7 million homeless
  • Infrastructure destroyed
  • 5-6 million in need of aid.
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What were the secondary effects?

  • Massive economic damage
  • Industries destroyed and tourism damaged.
  • Massive environmental damage
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What were the immediate response to this tsunami?

  • Hundreds of millions of pounds given in aid.
  • International services sent out to distribute aid and help with rescue and clearance
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What were the long-term responses?

  • Billions of people pledged to help rebuild.
  • Programmes set up to help rebuild and employ
  • Tsunami early warning system put in place
  • Disaster management plans put in place.
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