Case Studies Geography

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  • Created on: 10-04-14 09:06

The Soufriere Hills Volcano.

  • Located in monserrat.
  • erupted on june 25th 1997.

- Primary impacts.

-capital city buerried under 12 m of mud and ash.

-over 20 villages and 2/3 of homes on the island were destroyed by pyroclastic flows.

-Schools, Hospitals, the port and airport were destroyed.

-Farmland was destroyed.

-19 people died and 7 were injured.

- Secondary impacts

-fires destroyed governmental buildings and the police headquaters.

-tourists stayed away so buisnesses based arround tourism had to close down. Later they returned to see the   volcano

-Since the eruptions began(on a small scale) in 1995 2/3 of the population had left.

-soil fertility had increaced with the volcanic ash.

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The Soufriere Hills Volcano. (Responses)

- Immediate responses

-People evacuated to safe areas in the north.

-Shelters built to house evacuees.

-Temporary infrastructure built including electricity supplies and roads.

-UK sent £17 million of emergancy aids.

-Local emergancy services provided support units to search for and rescue survivors.

- Long-term responses

-a risk map created and an exclusion zone is in place while the volcano is active.

-UK gaas sent £41 million to develop the north of he island.

-An observatory has been built to predict future eruptions.

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T White Peak, Peak District (costs and benefits of

- costs

-Large numbers of people cause footpath erosion and Littering.

-Tourists cause traffic.

-People may leave traditional jobs for tourist relatd jobs.

-Tourists' second homes are absent for most of the year causing local shops to close.

- Benefits

-Tourism created jobs for the local people and brings in money.

-Farmers can diversify their business by using barns for camping barns or running   bed and breakfasts.

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Tourism in Dartmoor

- Costs

-Grass verges are being damagedd by tourists parking on them.

-Congestion on the narrow roads.

-grazing animals are being duisturbed by loose dogs.

- Benefits

-3,000 jobs are created by 4.5 million turists per year.

-In 2003 tourism generated £120 million for the local economy.

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Whatley quarry

-Advantages

-Economic

- The quarry employs over 100 people full time.

-Social

- The quarry has a study centre - around 4000 people from schools and colleges visit every year.

- The quarry has doinated stone to build a cycle track in the local area

-Disadvantages

-environmental

- 25,000 tonnes of rock are removed with each blast duisturbing the local

   wildlife.

-The quarry is large and has destroyed a large area of habitat.

-social

- A man was killed in an industrial accident in 2008.

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Hurricane Katrina

-Preperation

- Sophisticated monitering system to warn people.

- some states declared a state of emergancy so stockpiled supplies and set up control centres

- 70-80% of residents of New Orleans residents were evacuated before the hurricane hit.

-Social effects

- more than 1800 people killed.

-300,000 houses were destroyed.

- one of the main routes from New Orleans was closed due to damage.

-Economic effects

- About $300 billion of damage.

- 230,000 jobs were lost.

- 30 off shore oil platforms sank or went missing.

-shops were looted by redsidents in the days after the hurricane.

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Hurricane Katrina

-Environmental Effects

- Hurricane caused floods to destroy habitats like turtle breeding grounds.

-Short-Term Response

- During the storm coast guard, poloice, fire service and volunteers along with the army rescued over 50,000 people.

- 25,000 people were given shelter at a stadium.

-Long-Term response

- The US government has spent over $800 million on rebuilding flood defences.

- Around $34 billion has been set aside for the reconstructions of homes and schools.

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Cyclone Nargis

-Preperation

- Indian and Thai Governments warned Burma but they took no heed. saying there ws "little or no risk".

- No emergancy or evacuation plans.

-Social effects

- 140,000 people were killed.

- 450,000 houses were destroyed.

-  2-3 million people were made homeless.

- 1,700 schools were destroyed

-Economic effects

- $4 billion worth of damage

- Millions lost teir livleihoods

- 200,000 farm animals were killed, crops were lost and over 40% of food stores were destroyed.

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Cyclone Nargis

-environmental effects.

- Mangrove forrests were damaged

- The salinity (salt content) of the soil increaged in some areas inhibiting plant growth.

-Short-Term responses

- refused any foreign aid for 3 weeks

-UN launched a large appeal to raise money to help the victims.

-Long-Term responses

- Burma is relying on international aid to rebuild. More than 500,000 survivours are still living   in temporary shelters.

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Amazon rain forrest (Deforestation)

-Environmental impacts

- Destruction of habitat has lead to loss of biodiversity

- The amazo is a huge carbonsink so destroying it can release as much as 100 billion        tonnes of carbon dioxide int the atmosphere.

-Social impacts

- Some brazzilian rubber tappers have lost their Livelihoods Due to rubber trees being cut    down.

- Native tribes have been forced to move.

- Conflict between large land owners, Farmers and natives.

-Economic

- Farming makes alot of money in the rainforrest.

- Mining employs alot of people.

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Hot Deserts

-Kalahari Desert

- covers an area of about 260,000 Km2. It covers most of Botswana and parts of zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa.

- Only about 200mm of rain per year meanting that there is one permenant river and droughts are a problem.

- Sparsley populated but there are some native people some of who still hunt and gather their food.

-  Farming is a big industry in the Kalahari for example, in 1998 there were  2.3 million cattle in BNostwana.

- There is alot of mining in the area. These include coal, diamond, gold, copper, nickel and uranium mines.

-Negative impacts

- Overgrazing of the land causes soil erosion, and irigation has depleted groundwater supplies.

- Fences put up by farmers have blocked migration routes causing animals to die from starvation.

- Mining and farming have caused natives to be forced off their land.

- Mining is depleting groundwater supplies.

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Management strategies in the Kalahari

- Some places are trying to conserve water 

- The water supply is being increaced by building dams and drilling more             boreholes.

- Several game reservs have been created to give the natives and the animals    somewhere to live. 

- Some agricultuiral fences have been removed to allow for anomal migration.

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The Mojave Desert

- Covers over 57,000 Km2. It is spread over paarts of California, Nevada, Utah and Arizona

- Less that 250mm of rain per year 

- There is comercal farming in the area for example there have been cattle ranches in the    area for the last 100 years.

- The area is not very populated but is growing rapidly. Las Vegas in Nevada is the USA's    fastest growing city.

- Water comes  form groundwater, the Mojave river and the Colorado River.

- There are many tourist destinations including Las Vegas and Death Valley.

- There were many mines but now there are only a few borax mines.

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The Mojave Desert

NEGATIVE IMPACTS

- The rapid population growth has depleted the water resources

- Farming uses alot of water resources and causes soil erosion

- Tourists deplete water resources, drop litter, damage plants and cause soil erosion

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

- Water conservation schemes which give vouchers to buy water efficient appliances and encourage people to change their behaviour eg:  changing lawns for plants

- There are 4 national parks, Death Valley, Ioshua Tree, Zion and The Grand Canyon - species are protected and there are strict rules on mining on and on use of the natural resources.

- There are designated roads for off road vehicles to stop them from damaging plant life

- Some hotels in Las Vegas are trying to conserve water eg: The Mirage uses drip irrigation to water lawns.  It is more sustainable.

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Flooding - Carlisle

Causes

- 200mm rain fell within 36 h - saturated soil, increased runoff into river Eden.  

- Carlisle large urban area. Impermeable materials like concrete increased run off

- Caused River Eden to rise almost 30x more than normal

Primary Effects

- 3 deaths

- approx 3000 homeless

- 4 schools flooded

- 350 businesses shut down

- 70,000 addresses lost power

- Damaged infrastructure

- River polluted - rubbish and sewage

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Flooding - Carlisle

Secondary Effects

- Children lost out on education - months

- Stress related illnesses

- 3000 jobs in jeopardy

Immediate responses

- Evacuation

- Reception Centres - food and drink

- Temporary accommodation set up

Long term responses

- Community set ups to provide emotional and practical help

- River defences improved eg: built up banks on Eden

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Flooding - South Asia, Bangladesh & India

Causes

- Heavy rainfall - 900mm in July in one area

- Continuous rainfall - saturated soil - increased run off into rivers

- Water from glaciers and mountains into Brahmaputra river

Primary effects

- 2000+ deaths

- approx 25 million homeless

- 44 schools destroyed

- factories closed, livestock lost

- 112,000 houses destroyed in India

- 10,000 km roads destroyed

- River polluted - rubbish & sewage

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Flooding - South Asia, Bangladesh & India

Secondary Effects

- Children lost out on education / approx 4000 schools affected

- 100,000 caught waterborne diseases

- food prices rose as fields flooded

- farmers and factory workers lost jobs

Immediate Responses

- Many didn't evacuate

- Other governments and charities distributed food and water

- Tech equipment sent to help eg: rescue boats for stranded people

Long term response

- Intl charities funded rebuilding of homes, agriculture and fishing industries

- some homes built on stilts to make them future floodproof

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Water Management - East Midlands

Rutland Water - 1970s

Reservoir 12 km2 filled by 2 rivers - Welland and Nene

Designed to cope with rapid population growth in the area

Also, recreational areas and a nature reserve

ECONOMIC IMPACTS

- Rec. areas and reserve boost local economy

- 6 km2 land flooded to create reservoir - farmland incl.

SOCIAL IMPACTS

- Many rec activities on and around reservoir

- Many jobs created to build and maintain reservoir and for reserve and rec activities

- Schools educational visits to reservoir

- 2 villages demolished to make way for reservoir

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Water Management - East Midlands

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

- Site of Special Scientific Interest - SSSI  - Area where wildlife is protected

- 100s species of birdlife & tens of 000s of waterfowl in winter

- Variety of habitats, therefore many diff organisms around reservoir

- Ospreys (previously extinct in UK) reintroduced 

- Large area flooded destroyed some habitats



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Glacier - Rhone

In Swiss Alps

7.8 km long currently

Retreating since C19 (as most glaciers)

EVIDENCE OF GLACIAL RETREAT

- Measured since 1879 - reduced by just over 1200m

- Melt waters form lake which is increasing in size

GLOBAL WARMING

- Scientists agree global warming causing glacial retreat

- Some of CH has had above average temp rises - 1.8 degrees from 1937 - 2005 - poss due land locked

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Tourism on Ice - Chamonix

In Eastern France / French Alps at foot of Mont Blanc

One of top tourist destiations in world - >5 m visitors per year

Many glaciers in region - Mere de Glace - 7km long, 200m deep

Many other attractions - hiking, 6 ski areas, mounting biking tracks, alpine museum, ice skating

ECONOMIC IMPACT

- Created lots of jobs - 2500 seasonal p.a.

- Tourism brings in lots of money - Eg Co running ski lifts turnover 50,000,000 Euros p.a.

SOCIAL IMPACTS

- Jobs available in restaurants and hotels rather than farming

- Tourist Developments - eg ski slopes increased the avalanches, therefore more avalanche deaths

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Tourism on Ice - Chamonix

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

- Large nos of tourists = + traffic = + pollution

- Energy to run facilities - eg snow machines, ski lifts, hotels

MANAGEMENT

- Avalanche barriers maintained

- free public transport for tourists reduces traffic

- Some hotels introducing solar panels to heat water...

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Earthquakes - L'Aquila - Italy

PREPARATION

- Laws on construction standards - not always used

- Civil protection dept trains rescue volunteers

PRIMARY EFFECTS

- 290 deaths approx mostly from collapsed buildings

- 100s injured

- 000s buildings damaged/destroyed

- 000s made homeless

- bridge near Fossa collapsed, water pipe broke, 

SECONDARY EFFECTS

- Aftershocks hampered rescue efforts, caused more damage

- Fires in some collapsed buildings - more damage

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Earthquakes - L'Aquila - Italy

- Broken water pipe caused landslide

IMMEDIATE RESPONSE

- Camps for homeless - water food medical

- Ambulances / Fire Engines & Army - rescue

- Cranes / Diggers - removed rubble

- INtl teams with dogs detected survivors

- Money from Gvt for rent / gas & electricity bill suspended

LONG TERM RESPONSE

- PM promised to build a new town

- Investigation of buildings not built to standard

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Earthquakes - Kashmir - Pakistan

PREPARATION

- No local disaster planning

- Buildings not earthquake resistant

- Comms poor - few badly constructed roads

PRIMARY EFFECTS

- 80,000 deaths mostly from collapsed buildings

- 100s of 000s of people injured

- Entire villages and 000s buildings destroyed

- Approx 3m homeless

- Water pipelines / Electricity lines broken - cut off supplies

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Earthquakes - Kashmir - Pakistan

SECONDARY EFFECTS

- Landslides, buried buildings, blocked roads, cut off infrastructure

- Water borne disease spread quickly

- Freezing Winter = more casualties and made rescue and rebuilding difficult

IMMEDIATE RESPONSE

- None for days or weeks in many areas - rescue by hand

- tents, meds, etc distributed to some areas in a month

- Intl aid and equipment incl teams

LONG TERM RESPONSE

- 40,000 relocated

- Gvt money given for rebuilding their own homes

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Earthquakes - Kashmir - Pakistan

- Training for earthquake resistant building

- New health centres

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Coastal Flooding - The Maldives

Population - 300,000

No of Islands - 1,190 of which 199 inhabited

Average Island height 1.5m but 80% of land lower than 1m

Submerged in 50-100 years??

COASTAL FLOODING

Economic Impacts

- Loss of tourism (largest industry there)

- Fishing industry disrupted - fish largest export therefore would damage country's income

Social Impacts

- Houses damaged or destroyed, people made homeless

- Less fresh water available - could affect health/hygiene

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Coastal Flooding - The Maldives

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

- Wears away beaches on island rapidly destroying habitats and exposing land behind to flooding

- Loss of soil - most plants unable to grow with soil only 20cm deep

POLITICAL IMPACTS

- Gvt asked Japanese Gvt to build 3m sea wall to protect Captial Male

- Increased flooding caused by global warming.  Gvt pledged to be carbon neutral and encouraged other gvts to do same

CHANGES TO LONG TERM PLANS

- Gvt thinking of buying land in other places, eg India, Australia - Move people there before islands become uninhabitable

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Ageing Populations - UK

People living longer due to advances in medicine and improving living standards

-       From 1980 – 2006 life expectancy rose 2.6 years for women and 6.4 for men

-       Life expectancy currently 81.5 for women and 77.2 for men

-       Many babies born in 1940s and 1960s – Baby Booms

-       Now the 1940s babies are retiring creating a pensioner boom

-       Since 1970s birth rate fallen – therefore fewer younger people & the population is growing older

-       More elderly are living in poverty

-       Working population not big enough to pay for a sufficient pension

-       Despite low State Pension, gvt struggles to pay it – taxes insufficient to cover it and the more retirees there are, the more of a problem it becomes

-       Health Service under pressure – older people need more medical care eg average stay in hospital in 2005 was 8 nights but 13 for over 75s

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Ageing Populations - Coping Strategies

UK Gvt raising retirement age – by 2046 will be 68 for all

-       Leads to more paying tax and fewer claiming pensions

-       80% of EU immigrants to UK are 34 or under

-       Encouraging women to have children

-       Encourage people to take out private pensions

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Sustainable Cities

CURITIBA

- Southern Brazil

- Population 1.8m

- Aims - improve environment & quality of life, reduce pollution and waste

- Annual Budget $6m

REDUCING CAR USE

- Good bus system - 1.4m passgrs + / day

- Express Bus station - prepaid system reduces boarding times

- Bus lanes

- over 200km bike paths in city

- Bus system & bike paths mean car use 25% lower than national average & Curitiba has the lowest air pollution in Brazil

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Sustainable Cities

OPEN AIR SPACES AND CONSERVED NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS

- Green space increased from 0.5m sq p p to 52 p.p

- more than 1000 parks and natural areas - many in areas prone to flooding - no serious damage but useful

- 1.5 million trees planted along city streets

- builders tax breaks for projects including green space

GOOD RECYCLING SCHEMES

- 70% rubbish recycled

- paper recycling saves equivalent of 1200 trees per day

- poor areas - no access so residents given food and bus tickets as incentive when they bring their recycling in to central place

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GLOBAL INEQUALITIES

HURRICANE MITCH - Nicaragua & Honduras

HONDURAS

- 7000 killed

- 70% of crops destroyed

- 70%-80% of transport infrastructure severely damaged

- 35,000 houses destroyed, 50,000 damaged

- 20% schools damaged

- 117 health centres and 6 hospitals damaged

NICARAGUA

- 3000 killed

- crops failed, 50,000 animals died

- 70% roads unusable / 70 bridges destroyed

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GLOBAL INEQUALITIES

NICARAGUA CONT.

- 23,900 houses destroyed, 17,600 damaged

- 340 schools & 90 health centres damaged or destroyed

- set back development - 1998 grew by 4% - less than estimated

- rate of growth slowed in later months after Hurricane

- exports of rice & corn decreased due to hurricane damaging crops

- less earnings = more poverty so gvt had less money for development

- total damage $1.2b - cost of repairs took $ from development

- education of children suffered - children that worked increased by 8.1% ...therefore lower quality of life and harder to get jobs with poor education later on

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GLOBAL INEQUALITIES

HONDURAS

- $ from agriculture = 27% of GDP in 1998 - in 2000 fallen to 18% due crop damage

- reduced quality of life...less $

- GDP estimated to grow 5% in 98 but due hurricane... actually 3%

- less money for development

- repair costs est $439m

- development set back - president said 50 yrs of progress wiped out

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Reducing global inequality - rural Africa

- Farm Africa is a non-governmental organisation providing aid to Eastern Africa

- Funded by voluntary donations

- Founded 1985 to reduce rural poverty

- Farm Africa run programs in 5 countries, Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania 

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FARM Africa project in Ethiopia

RUAL WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT - VARIOUS REGIONS

PROBLEM

- Very few opportunities for Ethiopian women to make money leading to low quality of life and being unable to afford health care.

WHAT'S BEING DONE

- Women given training and livestock to start farming.

- Loan schemes set up to start small businesses e.g. bakeries, coffee shops

- Legal training to advise others of their rights

- Helping around 15,160 people

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FARM Africa project in Ethiopia

PROSOPIS MANAGEMENT - REGION AFAR

PROBLEM

- Prospis, a plant introduced by government to stablise soil has become a pest invading grazing land and making farming difficult.

WHAT'S BEING DONE

- Farmers shown how to convert Prospis into animal feed which can be sold making a new income source.

- Helping around 4,400 households

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FARM Africa project in Ethiopia

Community Development Project - Region Semu Robi

PROBLEM

- Frequent droughts make farming difficult reducing income causing malnutrition

- Semu Robi is remote getting vet care is difficult

WHAT'S BEING DONE

- People given loans for small water pumps to irrrigate farmland

- Training in basic vetinary care to keep livestock healthy

- Helping 4,100 people

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FARM Africa project in Ethiopia

Sustainable Forest Management - Region: Bale

PROBLEM

- Forests are cut down to make land for crops, grazing livestock

- Trees cut down for firewood reducing resources for future generations

WHAT'S BEING DONE

- Communitiies taught how to make honey and coffee without cutting down trees

- Taught how to make more efficient stoves using less wood and so less deforestation

- Helps around 7,500 communities

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UK TOURISM - LAKE DISTRICT

Lake District National Park gets 15 millions of visitors per year

POPULAR BECAUSE

- Scenery - Large lakes - Windermere, Mountains - Scafell Pike

- Many activities, bird watching, walking, pony trekking, boating, sailing and rock climbing

- Cultural attractions such as Beatrix Potter and Wordsworth museums

COPING STRATEGIES

- Public transport being improved - leaving car at home

- Campaigns to promote new services

- Encourage visitors to use less vulnerable footpaths by changing the lines of paths or using more hard-wearing materials

- Signs reminding vistors to take litter home and covered bins in most sites

- Campaigns encouraging responsible behaviour such as closing gates.

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UK TOURISM - LAKE DISTRICT

PLANS TO KEEP IT ATTRACTIVE FOR TOURISTS

- Public transport improved so improving accessibility

- Widespread advertising and marketing making area better known.

- Farms encouraged to provide more services along side traditional farming such as clay pigeon shooting, quad biking

- Time-share developments where people share property but stay there at different times.

- Strategy also aims to encourage tourism in areas outside the national park e.g. west coast and Furness and Carlisle to relieve pressure on main tourist areas.

 

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MASS TOURISM IN KENYA

REASONS PEOPLE VISIT

- Fascinating tribal culture and wildlife incl. big 5 (Lion, Rhino, elephant, buffalo, leopard)

- A warm climate

- Beautiful scenery - savannah, mountains, forests, beaches and coral reefs

IMPACTS

- POSITIVE

- Tourism contributes 15% GNP

- In 2003 219,000 people worked in tourism

- Culture and customs of Masai, such as dancing preserved as it is displayed for tourists

- 23 national parks in Kenya vistors have to pay entranbce fees - used to maintain parks,

 environment and wildlife.

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MASS TOURISM IN KENYA

- NEGATIVE IMPACTS

- 15% of tourism money goes to locals rest to big companies

- Some Masai displaced from land to make space for pasks for tourists

- Some Muslims in Kenya offended by dress of female tourists

- Safari vehicles destroy vegetation and cause soil erosion

- Wild animals change behaviour to avoid tourists

- Coral reefs damaged by boat anchors

REDUCING NEGATIVE IMAPCTS

- Walking of horse back tours promoted over vehicle safaris

- Alternate activites less damaging than safaris promoted - white water rafting and climbing

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MASS TOURISM IN KENYA

MAINTAINING TOURISM

- Ministry of tourism launched advertising campaign in Russia called Magical Kenya

- Kenya wildlife service building airstrips in Ruma National Park and Mount Elgon National Park

  to improove accessibility for tourists

- Plans on spending £8 millions improving rads bridges and airstrips

- Visa fees for adults cut by 50% in 2009 and scrapped for under 16s to encourage families.

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ECO-TOURISM - TATAQUARA LODGE

On an island on Xingu River in Brazilian state of Para

Owned and operated by co-op of 6 local tribes

Lodge has 15 room and offer activities, fishing, canoeing, wildlife viewing and forest walks

ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

Lodge buit from local materials such as straw and wood that were found on the ground so no trees were felled.

Also doesn't spoil scenery

Uses solar power to run lights - better for environment

Locally produced food served in lodge

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ECO-TOURISM - TATAQUARA LODGE

ECONOMIC BENEFITS

Lodge owned by indiginous tribes rather than big foreign companies so income goes to local economy.

Locally produced food is bought from locals so money goes into local economy

SOCIAL BENEFITS

Lodge creates jobs

People in nearby villages encouraged to visit the lodge to sell crafts and perform traditional songs and dances. Gives income and preserves culture.

Profits from lodge provide health care and eduction for local people from tribes

Development is sustainable because money to do it is generated without damaging the environment.

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TOURISM IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS - ANTARCTICA

Continent on Earth's south pole, covers 14 millions KmSq, 98% covered with ice.

Number of tourists is rising, e.g. 7,413 in 1996-97 season but 46,000 in 2007-8 season.

Tourist attracted by stunning scenery, icebergs, and wildlife - penguins, whales.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

Tourist can trample plants, disturb wildlife, drop litter etc

Fears tourists could introduce non-native species or diseases

Spillage of fuel from ships is a concern - can kill molluscs,( e.g. mussels) and fish (e.g. fish) also impacts birtd that feed on the fish - (e.g. penguins)

PROTECTION MEASURES

Antarctic Treaty - came into force in 1961; 47 countries have signed it; designed to protect area and wildlife.

Only ships with fewer than 500 passangers are allowed and only 100 ashore at a time

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TOURISM IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS - ANTARCTICA

International Assocation of Antarctica Tour Operations (IAATO) has sep voluntary code of conduct

which most stick to:

1. Specially protected areas off limits to tourists

2. Wildlife not to be disturbed when observed

3. Nothing to be left by tourists, no smoking during shore landings

4. Tourists must stay with group which must have qualified guide...prevents entering no go areas or disturbing wildlife.

5. Tourists not to walk on fragile plant life

6. Sewage treated biologically and other waste stored on ship

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