Case Studies, Edexcel Geography, A2

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  • Created by: Calum
  • Created on: 11-06-13 17:50

2004 Asian Tsunami

  • Date:Sunday 26th December 2004
  • Location: Indian Ocean, North Indonesia
  • Epicentre Close to Aceh, North Indonesia
  • Strength: 9.1 on Richter scale
  • Plates: Fault line of Indian and Eurasian plate, collision boundary
  • Key facts: Water displaced by 1om created a tsunami, waves travelled at nearly 500mph
  • Impacts: Worst Tsunami in 40 years
  • Responses: Massive international response of $12 billion pledged. $190 million raised by people in the effected countries. A lot of donations due to it was on such a large scale.
  • References: USGS, bbc news website, www.alnap.org. 
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2004 Asian Tsunami

Social Effects:

  • 275,000 across 14 countries were killed.
  • 141000 homes destroyed 
  • Indonesia was the worst affected area

Economic impacts:

  • US$ 9.9 billion lost in damage > there was a 5 year recovery time
  • 66% of Sri Lanka's fishing industry wiped out
  • Affected tourism 

Environmental impacts:

  • 17 atolls destroyed in the Maldives 
  • Severe damage to coral reefs and coastal ecosystems 
  • Pollution of drinking water 
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2011 Japan Tsunami

  • Date: Friday 11th March 2011
  • Location: Japan
  • Epicentre: 130km east of Sendai 
  • Strength: 9.0 on Richter scale
  • Plates: Pacific plate subducting under the Eurasian plate 
  • Key facts: Energy produced by earthquake equivalent to energy output of the UK
  • Impacts: Japan was preparing for initial earthquake, but following tsunami caused problems, warning issued 3 minutes after earthquake
  • Responses: 91 countries offered aid randing from blankets to military assistance, charities such as Red Cross and Save The Children asked for donations. 59 rescues teams arrived in Japan
  • References: USGS, Guardian, BBC news website, UNEP.com 
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2011 Japan Tsunami

Social impacts:

  • 18,000 people died
  • 452,000 left homeless, 1.2 million homes without electricity 
  • 483 roads cut off

Economic impacts:

  • Value of the Yen fell sharpley afterwards
  • Clean up operation estimated to cost £145 Billion (4% of GDP)
  • Take 5 years to fully recover

Environmental impacts:

  • Huge amount of debris 
  • Risk of radioactive contamination 
  • Pollution of water supplies 
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1995 Kobe Earthquake

  • Date:January 17th 1995
  • Location: Japan
  • Epicentre: 40 miles away from Kobe
  • Strength: 7.2
  • Plates: Philippines plate and Eurasion place
  • Key facts: One of the most expensive disasters in history
  • Responses: More than 300,000 people were moved into emergency shelters,food was scarce. People fought over noodles, the military wasn't issued until 9 hours after the quake. Government donated $450 million to people affected, government subsidised 90% of rapairs
  • References: USGS, BBC news webside, Georesources.com 
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1995 Kobe Earthquake

Social Impacts:

  • 5502 people confirmed dead, 80% of these being from being crushed
  • 37,000 people injured
  • Over 200,000 buildings damaged or destroyed

Economic impacts:

  • Caused $132 billion in damage 
  • Only $3 billion was covered by insurance
  • Kobe's port was badly damaged.

Environmental impacts:

  • Numerous fires, gas and water main breaks
  • The fault shifted 6-10 feet in opposite directions 
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2010 Haiti Earthquake

  • Date:12th January 2010
  • Location: Haiti,
  • Epicentre: 16km SW of Port-Au-Prince
  • Strength: 7.0
  • Plates: North American plate and Caribbean plate
  • Key facts: predicted 2 years prior by Professor Paul Mann, Shallow depth of the earthquake amplified it, meaning more impacts
  • Responses: A corrupt government made it hard to make plans of action, Initially response was slow to date, NGO's have raised over £380 million, 53 USAR teams went out to help rescue over 200 people
  • References: Hairi's killer earthquake documentary channel 4, www.dec.org.uk/haiti, www.alnap.org 
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2010 Haiti Earthquake

Social Impacts:

  • Affected 3 million people, approximately 230,000 people died
  • 60% of government buildings destroyed
  • 1 in 3 nuildings collapesed, due to lack of proper steel supports.

Economic impacts:

  • Poorest nation in the western hemisphere 
  • 7-% of habitants live on less than $2 a day

Environmental 

  • 19 million cubic meters of rubble and debris in Port au Prince 
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1995 Montserrat Volcanic Eruption

  • Date:1995-1997
  • Location: Soufriere hills, Monseratte 
  • Plates: North American plate subducting under caribbean plate 
  • Key facts: Dormant for nearly 400 years
  • Impacts:small eruption 
  • Responses: £41 million was given in aid by the british government, the MVO was set up to study the volcano and provide warnings for the future 
  • References: BBC news, A2 geography textbook 
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1995 Montserrat Volcanic Eruption

Social impacts:

  • 23 people died, 50% of the population were evacuated to the north of the island
  • Abandonment of major cities 
  • Partial evacuation, 120000 people emigrated to other countries, one of with the UK

Economic impacts:

  • Revieved humanitarian ain, UK provided £10 million in aid
  • Rioting broke out
  • Tourist industry is still suffering with dew visitors

Environmental impacts:

  • Farmland destroyed
  • Forest fires caused by pyroclastic flows
  • As most of the southern area was destroyed any remaining inhabitants had to endure harsh living conditions in the North. 
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