Case studies

  • Created by: BeccaEK
  • Created on: 25-05-15 11:56

Bangalore, India

  • 1980s - government established it as a 'science city' > gave incentives for businesses to establish there (reduced tariffs)
  • Had a growth in transport + education infrastructure + raising incomes
  • 'Science city' status created direct employment for 2.3 million + indirect employment for 6.5 million
  • FDI from Microsoft and Bank of America
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Marange Diamond Fields, Zimbabwe

  • Corrupt government > police + soldiers easily bribed by black market dealers and middle men (who smuggle the diamonds out of the country)
  • 50% of all profits given to the military, workers paid very little > government get no money to fund health or education
  • As many as 10,000 illegal forced workers (adults + children)
  • GNI PPP per capita = $1600, same as 1990
  • Stuck in vicious cycle > start work as children, no chance for education etc
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Indigenisation, Zimbabwe

  • Introduced by Mugabe in 2000
  • ZanuPF supporters confiscated white owned farms and gave them to black Zimbabweans
  • 1/3 fall in food production + 45% malnutrition rate > need for food aid
  • Black Zimbabwean farmers = unskilled > sold machinery to make money quickly, didn't know it was needed for high crop yields
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  • Population of 10 million
    • 80% live below poverty line
    • 45% literacy rate
    • 66% employed in agriculture
  • Earthquake occured 12th January 2010Grow their own rice BUT it is more expensive than that grown in US > people don't buy it so unable to trade internationally
    • £5bn in aid since then (equivalent to entire GDP)
    • 300,000 still live in tented camps in the capital
    • Concerns regarding corruption + lack of planning
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  • Deforestation = loss of natural resources so must be imported > eg palm oil
  • Pollution of rivers + important water sources = common
  • Some of world's worst failures in health and education > low levels of sanitation/ public hygiene (1/2 population use street as toilet)
  • 600,000 female foetuses aborted each year
  • Deeply entrenched inequality > ruling class defined by education, income + gender
  • States influence their own economic growth > led to inequality/imbalance
  • Some rulers linked with corruption (people don't trust or want to trade with them)
  • Government spends more subsidising fertilisers than all public healthcare
  • Manufacturing = only 14% of GDP (same as 1960)
  • More Indians buy from China than other way round > unequal trade
  • Gaining independance from British = had to start development unaided
  • Many businesses are family orientated > FDI uncommon as staff are employed based on relationship not skills
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Guangdong, China

  • Economic zones created in 1980 > 3 of these are in Guangdong province
  • Government allowed free trade + FDI in economic zones > made Pearl Delta open economic zone - became prosperous by making clothing
  • Coastal location = good for foreign investment
  • Proximity to Hong Kong (economic hub) = good for domestic investment
  • Population of 94.5 million - provides huge worforce for labour intensive manufacturing industries
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  • Good governance
  • Needed to control rebel groups + avoid corrupt parties gaining power
  • Vast amount of conflict results in humanitarian problems
  • Has allowed them to trade (mango exports) successfully by investing in trade routes + improving trading relations
  • FDI/aid
  • Chinese funded Malibya canal BUT agricultural land lost + people forced to move due to flooding (can be conflicts between locals + FDI countries)
  • WaterAid helped 43,000 people have access to safe water in 2013
  • Oxfam highlighted the need for improvement in areas of education > hugely beneficial in allowing development
  • Extending female education + rights
  • 33% women cannot read or write (leads to lack of independance)
  • Sex inequality - eg **** only made illegal in 2011
  • Government need to introduce legislative changes to aid equality
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Beijing, China

  • GNI PPP per capita = over $21,000 (more than double China's average)
  • Increased car ownership by 250,000 a year
  • 8 coal fired power stations in Beijing + over 30 in surrounding area of 100km
  • WHO estimates 500,000 people die prematurely due to air pollution
  • 2013 - for 7 months air was recorded to be 'polluted' or 'severly polluted'
  • Low income makes impacts of air pollution worse - cannot afford best masks or medical care, many work outdoors (eg on construction sites), cannot afford to send children to private schools with air locked domes
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White Horse Village, Wuxi County, Central China

  • New, high rise county capital built where White Horse Village was
  • Villagers promised new high school with labs, library + swimming pool
  • Villager's land was taken + they had to move out of their farmhouses - in exchange they were to be given an apartment + shop front and their children would get education equal to the best in China
  • BUT development led to further inequality > new school only allowed a handful of the village children in, other places being taken by children of officials + business people from old county capital
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Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta, Canada

  • Athabasca Oil Sands = large deposits of extremely heavy crude oil
  • About 2 tons of oil sands requires to produce 1 barrel of oil
  • Approx 20% of Alberta's oil sands are recoverable through open-pit mining BUT 80% requires in situ extraction technology > open-pit mining destroys the boreal forest
  • Since the beginning of the oil sands development, there have been several leaks into the Athabasca river - polluting it with oil
  • Oil development draws enormous numbers of people to a fragile ecosystem
  • Negative influence on Caribou by constructing roads + destroying habitats
  • As toxins build up in the river, fish become mutated or deformed and many have tumours
  • Aboriginals living in the surrounding areas are becoming increasingly worried about how the animals they eat + water they drink is being affected
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  • Income tax = used to re-distribute wealth for a fairer society > most governments use progressive schemes (more you earn, more you pay)
  • VAT = essentials (food, clothes, shoes) exempt from tax, affordable for all
  • Tax credit system = (children) free school meals, free childcare, clothing allowance, uni grants (pensioners) subsidised fuel + transport (all) benefits
  • Minimum wage = £6.32 for over 21s
  • Compulsory education for ages 5-16 (now 5-18)
  • Sure Start
    • Labour's scheme to eradicate child poverty by 2020 - aimed to intergrate free childcare, health, early education to allow mothers to return to work
  • Food Banks
    • 420 in UK - 90% of food is donated + they are run by volunteers
    • Vouchers given out by police + social workers - well managed
    • Some people require them full time (13 million live below poverty line)
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East London, UK

London Olympics 2012

  • Aimed for long-term economic growth through improving infrasructure, changing image of area + attracting new businesses
  • Housing = 2,800 to be built, 1,400 of these to be affordable (olympic village)
  • Located near to Westfield shopping centre (Europe's biggest urban shopping centre, worth £1.45bn), providing services + 8,000 job opportunities
  • House prices in nearby areas recorded to have increased by 25% (compared to 20% nationally) in 2010, 5 years after London announced host
  • Over 9,000 job opportunities created on olympic park > over 25% workers were from the neighbouring area
  • Over 1,000 companies won contracts worth over £5bn from olympic delivery authority > 98% of these were UK companies
  • Had high hopes/ambitions for being 'green' but not all plans actually worked
  • 2014 - park re-opened as 'Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park'
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