CASE STUDIES

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POLAND to UK

Over 500,000 have moved since joining EU (2004).

Higher unemployment (19%) vs plenty of job opportunities, lower income levels in Poland - 1/3 of average EU wage.

fill previously unwanted jobs (c&c) - although competition

contribute to local and national economy

support UK's ageing population, although strain on services

shortage of workers, slowing growth of economy

lots of money sent back (£4bn a year)

reduced strain on services

contact home guard

points system (in future)

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PEVENSEY BAY - east sussex

Replenishment - sand dredged up from under the sea and sprayed onto beach
-by the dredger 'Sospan Dau'
-during summer months

Reprofiling - bulldozers change gradient of beach to make it best for absorbing wave energy
-after winter storms

Recycling - trucks move transported and deposited material from east to west
-3 times a year

40,000 tyres put into ground to stabilise and strengthen soil

Longshore drift = W --> E

50km2 would be flooded, 10,000 properties   

25,000 cu.m of material moved per year

saved beach (properties and tourism)

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OLD HARRY ROCKS - dorset

Handfast Point - chalk

Studland and Swanage Bay - clay and sandstone

Most easterly point on the Jurassic Coast

crack --> cave --> arch --> stack --> stump

                                    Old Harry       Old Harry's Wife

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PEVENSEY BAY - east sussex

Replenishment - sand dredged up from under the sea and sprayed onto beach
-by the dredger 'Sospan Dau'
-during summer months

Reprofiling - bulldozers change gradient of beach to make it best for absorbing wave energy
-after winter storms

Recycling - trucks move transported and deposited material from east to west
-3 times a year

40,000 tyres put into ground to stabilise and strengthen soil

Longshore drift = W --> E

50km2 would be flooded, 10,000 properties   

25,000 cu.m of material moved per year

saved beach (properties and tourism)

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RIVER TEES

Cross Fell, 600m above sea level

Middle course is between Middleton and Yarm, meander at Yarm

->river bends around a riffle

->more erosion (state processes) on outside as river has more energy (less friction)

->river cliff formed

->more friction on inside of bend means river has less energy = more deposition

->slip-off slope and river beach

->meander neck gets thinner and thinner

->river flows over neck and deposition separates bend from river

->bend forms oxbow lake

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ONE CHILD POLICY

1979 introduced
Designed to halve population by 2100
After 'longer later fewer' didn't work

fertility rate fell to 1.2 births per woman by 2010
300m births prevented
overpopulation problems have been reduced

4-2-1 problem
girls aborted/abandoned
30m more men than women

living standards increased
by 2050 40% of population will be over 66 years old

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AGEING POPULATION - japan

23% elderly dependents

83 years old life expectancy

age of marriage is 28-30 years

retirement age raised overall from 55 to 65

increasingly difficult to provide sufficient healthcare
not enough working age people to fill the jobs

long term aim - japanese women have more children (tax incentives)
decision delayed for too long
labour shortage could be resolved by using migrant workers, but japanese are opposed to migration and foreigners

more sustainable solutions = raising retirement age, educating/skilling the workforce to make them more productive, increasing taxes

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UK INTERNAL MIGRATION

2.8m internal migration moves in 2012

London has the biggest net loss

young adults are most likely to migrate

north --> south :

decline of primary industries (lack of employment) 8% north, 5% south

colder weather, hillier areas

better standard of living, housing, healthcare & universities

urban --> rural

better transport links

open spaces, better qol

cheaper housing

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LONDON DOCKLANDS

1981 LDDC

containerisation

tilbury downstream - a bigger port

100,000 new jobs

gentrification didn't happen in surrounding areas

DLR

1000s of trees planted

20,000 new flats

no investment in healthcare or education

new jobs unsuitable for old residents

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ROCINHA - Rio de Janeiro

rural -> urban
push factors: poor climate for farming, unreliable income
effect on rural: young men leave, so less productive workforce is left behind

10m in rio
2m in favelas
1/2m homeless

unsafe locations (steep hillsides)
conditions are crowded and insanitary
lack of stable or well-paid work

self help schemes - sustainable?
unsafe buildings are strengthened
new shops opened = jobs (reduced crime)
electricity, roads and water supply provided

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GREENWICH MILLENIUM VILLAGE

1400 homes
sainsbury's ecostore
south facing glass
homes designed to use 80% less energy

not completely self sufficient (cars and fossil fuels still used)

small community
layout encourages walking and cycling
lots of open space = better qol
brownfield development = more sustainable

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MEADOW HALL - sheffield

built in 1990
30m visitors per year

7,000 jobs
200+ stores
£756m spent there each year

encourages people to drive = air pollution
built on brownfield
free car parking

shops in sheffield (3 mi away) boarded up

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HURRICANE KATRINA - New Orleans, 2005

155km/h ave. winds

50in rainfall a day

3 levees broken

600,000 fled N.O

200,000 homes destroyed

25,000 in Houston Astrodome

500,000 hot meals a day

$5.5bn in aid given

5 aid trailers a day

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CYCLONE NARGIS - burma

114km/h winds

low-lying land (irrawaddy)

densely populated (1000+/km2)

2.4m affected (e.g homelessness etc)

cost of rice increased by 1/2 (50%)

80+% mangroves destroyed

2 weeks later only 1/2 had gotten aid

refused help

army harrassed volunteers

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MT ETNA

Ski resort 

No deaths

Diverted lava

Eurasion and African, destructive

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HAITI - 2010

Caribbean and North American

7.0 magnitude

230,000 dead

300,000 injured

30,000 buildings destroyed excluding homes (250k)

cholera to 10 provinces in first 10 weeks (no response)

$33m from UK

3x16hrs for aid to arrive

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BOSCASTLE - R. Valency, 2004

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