Squatter Settlement Redevelopment
Improvement by residents involves residents seeking to 'do up' their original shelters, meaning replacing flimsy, temporary materials with more permenant brick & concrete, catching rainwater in a tank on the roof, & obtaining an electricity supply.
Self-help occurs where local authorites support residents of squatter settlements to improving their homes. This involves the improvements outlined above, but its more organised. Theres cooperation between residents to work together & remove rubbish. Also theres cooperation from the local authority which offers grants, cheap loans & possible materials to encourage improvements to take place. Standpipes are likel to be provided for access to water supply & sanitation. The local residents, with help from the local authority, may begin to build health centres & schools. Legal ownership of the land is granted to encourage improvements to take place, marking an acceptance of the housing.
Site & service schemes are a more formal way of helping squatter settlement residents. Land is identified for the scheme. The infrastrucure is laid in adavace of settlement, so that water, sanitation & electricity are properly supplied to individually marked plots. People then build their homes using whatever materials they can afford at the time. They can add to & improve the structure if finances allow later.
60% of Nairobi's inhabitants live in slums, over half of them in Kibera. Specific facts about Kibera are uncertain. It's believed that between 800,000 and 1 million people live in the shanty town, in an area of 255 ha. This gives extremely high densities, with people only have 1m^2 of floor space each. Over 100,000 children are believed to be orphans as a result of the high incidence of HIV/Aids.The homes are made of mud, plastered-over boards, wood or corrugated iron sheeting. The paths between the houses are irregular, narrow & often have a ditch running down the middle that has sewage in it. Rubbish litters the area as its not colleted. The area smells of charcoal used to provide up to 40 families; private operators run hosepipes into the area and charge double the going rate for water. Crime is rife & vigilante groups offer secruity - at a price. Police are reluctant to enter.
There are signs that things are improving.
- practical-action, a british charity, has been responsible for developing low-cost roofing tiles. Made from sand & clay, & using natural fibres & lime, building blocks can be made as cheaper alternative to concrete - these allow self-help schemes to progress
- the United Nation's Human Settlement Programme has provided affordable electricity to some parts at 300 Kenyan shillings per sack
- Two main water pipes - one provided by the council & the other by World Bank - at a cost about 3 Kenyan shillings for 20 litres
- Medical facitlites provided by charities
- Gap-year students encouraged to go to Kibera to oversee the spending & help to coordinate efforts
Conserving the Historic Environment: Liverpool
The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City provides an example of conserving an area of previous industrial use & historic commercial & cultural areas. The Liverpool waterfront & areas associated with its development were designated a World Heritage Site in 2004. The award recognised the importance of the area as a port and associated buildings of global significance during the heydey of the British Empire in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Many of the buildings are arhictually as they were hthen, although their function has changed.
There are many of the faces of sites in Liverpool that have gained recognitio, conserving an environement so rich in history and heritage
Sustainable Urban Living: Curitiba
Curitiba is the capital of the Brazilian state of Parana. It is the seventh larges city with a population of 1.8 million. The city is seen as a role model for planning & sustainability in cities worlwide. In 1968, the curitiba masterplan was adopted to control urban sprawl, reduce traffic in the city centre, develop public transport & preserve the historic sector. The emphasis has been on ensuring an appropriate quality of life for the residents of curitiba with a concenrn for the environment & the need to leave a suitable area for generations living in the city.
There is now a network of 28 riverside parks creating almost 100 miles of city trails. Lakes have been created within these parks that fiill & flood surrounding parkland in periods of heavy rain reducing the risk of flooding in the city itself.
The 'green exchange' program involves low-income families in shanty towns exchanging rubbish for bus tickets & food. 70% of the city's rubbish recycels by its residents.
The Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) System. Has four elements:
- direct line buses operate from key pick-up points
- speedy buses operate on the five main routes into the city & have linked stops
- inter-district buses join up districts without crossing the city centre
- feeder mini-buses pock people up from the residential areas
Developments in ICT have allowed immediate access to people all over the world & fostered developments in small areas, knowing that communiction arcoss the world is possible. This has led to a cluster of world-famous companies associated with motor racing in an axis between Northampton & Oxford in the southern part of the British Midlands. This area is known as Motorsport Valley,
Motorsport Valley fact file:
- almost 40,000 people employed including 25,000 world class engineers
- 2,200 businesses relating to design, research & development & event organisation
- over 80% of the world market in high-performance engineering
- sales of around £6 billion, of which 60% are exports
- about one third of the total profits are reinvested into research & development
Development of Call Centres Abroad: Indina
- About 10% of the population (some 100million people) speak english fluently
- of the 787 million living in towns, about 80% are literate & 18% of these are graduates
- operating costs are between 10 and 60% lower than in the UK
- salaries are lower e.g. £1200 per year in contrast to £12,000 per year in the UK
- low staff turnover, working nine-hour shifts at times to fit in with origin country of company
- development of ICT allows fast & clear communication
Toyota began in Toyota, Aichic, Japan in 1937. 70 years later, it had become the biggest producer of cars in the world, with profits of $11billion in 2006.
Toyota began to develop overseas in the late 1950s in Brazil. From its headquarters in Tokyo, a huge operation is managed with 250,000 workers employed in 26 countries. The company decided to seek to develop production in the UK in the early 1990s. The reasons for this are:
- strong tradition of vehicle manufacturing in Britain
- their large domestic market was in Britain
- Uk offered solid industrial transport links to customers and 230 british & european supply partners
- excellent workforce & favourable working practices
- supportive & positive attitued to inward investment from the british government at local & national level
- english language is very much the second language in Japan - easy communications & integration
China: the new industrial giant
Reasons for China's rapid growth:
- government legislation - in 1977, deng xiaoping sought to end china's isolation & stimulate chinese industry. Foreign investment was encouraged but the government maintained overall control over the enconomy so that China would gain maximum benefit. Between 1980 & 1994 special economic zones (SEZs) were set up. these paved the way for foreign investment tax incentives to foreign companies
- the home market - the one-child policy introduced in 1979, successfully reduced population growth &, as families become wealthier, consumer demand increased. today china has a large & relatively rich urban population demanding electrical household goods, air conditioning, cars & computers. china's massive home market will continue to grow
- the olympic's factor - the 2008 olympics were held in beijing. this provided china with the perfect opportunity to showcase the nation. the opening ceremony, based on the theme 'one world, one dream' was important in an attempt to convey china as a modern, open & friendly country
- energy - industrial development on a large scale demands large resources of energy. china currently generates two-thirds of its electricity at coal-fired power stations. many new plants are being built. hydroelectric powe accounted for 13.9% of electricity in 2010. china produces more hydroelectric power than any other country in the world & is keen to develop new sources of energy. the three gorges dam is the biggest in the world, generating 22,500mW. together with the development of navigation along the yangste, the dam has led to much development
Renewable Energy: Wind Power UK
- aims: to generate 10% of power by renewable energy resources
- role: to be responsible for one-third of electricity generated
- number of wind farms & turbines operational in july 2011: 306
- location: mostly onshore
- the future: offshore wind farms to become more important, with 8GW to be generated by 2016
- size of a modern wind turbine: 100 to 120m, including the blades. offshore wind turbines tend to be the largest
- offshore operations: these are usually with 4 to 6 km off the coast, but some planned developments will be over 18km
- location requirements: shallow waters off the coast of the UK are an advantage. wind farms require an exposed location, onshore or offshore, clear of obstructions. small differences in distance can mean real difference in potential of site
- opinions - against: noise levels, research suggests that turbines are avoided by migrating birds. house prices nearby may reduce, the cost of generating electricity is more expensive than traditional methods. tubines can be very tall & an eyesore
- opinions - for: wind is free & can now be captured efficiently. energy produce doesnt cause green house gases or other pollutants. although theyre tall each takes up only a small plot of land, meaning the land below can still be used. at sea the turbines can attract fish & have no long term effects on sea life. some people find wind farms interesting feature of the landscape. can be used to produce electricity in remote ares that arent connected to the national grid
Importance of International Directives: Kyoto Prot
the Kyoto protocol agreed by industrialised countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 5% below 1990 levels between 2008 & 2012. EU countries as a whole should show 8% reduction, but individual countries have their own targets. the treaty became legally binding in 2005, when enough countries responsible for 55% of the total emissions had signed. the USE had declined to sign the agreement but by August 2011 there were 191 signatories. the poorer nations, including those with many industries, dont have to reduce their emissions. countries can trade in their carbon credits - the amount of greenhouse gases they are allowed to emit. countries putting more pollution into the atmosphere than they should can buy carbon credits from a country below its agreed level
Development of Tourism: Italy
Italy is a country with a great variety of landscapes. The three key types are: mountines, cities & coastlines. All the places have a busy tourist business, making an important contribution to the national economy.
Venice is well known for its canals and Renaissance architecture; Florence for its art and galleries. Skiing in the Alps and sunbathing on the coast are popular with both italians and visitors from other countries.
italy has an expension of holiday choice. People want to visit a greater variety of places and the tourists industry grows & adapts to supply what the market demands.
Economic Impact of Tourism: Dubai
Dubai is one of the United Arab Emirates. It is located on the Arabian Gulf Coast neighbouring Saudi Arabia. Because its easily accessible from Europe, Asia & Africa, toruism in Dubai is growing quickly, Hotel revenue was up by 22% in the first quarter of 2008 compared with the same period the previous year. Around 2.8 millio people visited the principality in 2000, 4.9 milion in 2003 and 5.4 milliion in 2004. These numbers are predicted to grow further to 15 million by 2015, which would make Dubai one of the world's top toursit destinations.
The state is famous for its duty-free shopping malls with huge deparment stores and its markets. Prices are reasonable and theres huge variety. Emirates Airlines, which is based in Dubai, carries millions of long-haul passengers to hundreds of destinations & many stop over in Dubai as part of their trip.
Sightseeing is popular- the markets, the zoo, the dhow-building yards (traditional boats). Watersports, and especially diving, are growing in popularity. Excursions out from the city allow the visitor to see the desert & its wildllife. Bird watching trips take visitors to see the wetland mudflat areas, where there are 400 species
Uk Tourism: National Parks - The Lake District
Attractions & opportunities for tourism
The English Lake District is a glaciated upland area in Cumbriam north-west England. It stretches 64km from north to south and 53km east to west. it became a national park in 1951. famous for its stunning scenery, abundant wildlife & cultural heritage, its considered to be England's finest landascape.
The great outdoors
the ribbon lakes & tarns are part of a unique & hugely varied landscape, as well as being a major recreational resource. Lake windermere specialises in ferry cruises. most people sail between the main centres of windermere town and ambleside. small boats are allowed on many lakes. areas are set aside for windsailing and power boating so the activites dont clash & quiet areas are left for people seeking peace & quiet. fishing from the shore or boats is increasing in popularity.
walking is one of the most popular reasons why people visit the lake district, whether for a day or longer. routes vary from short & relatively flat to extremely long & tough. public access to fells is unrestrcicted.
history & culture
historical & cultural sites also attract tourists. the lake has been occupied since the end of the ice age & evidence of early settlement remains in the landscape. the land has been farmed for centuries, leaving a distinctive field pattern with drystone walls.
Mass Tourism: Kenya
Kenya is in East Africa. It gets over 700,000 vistior per year. Reasons why people visit are:
- a fascinating tribal culture with lots of wildlife. Wildlife safaris are very popular
- a warm climate with sunshine all year round
- beautiful scenery, including savannah, mountains, forest, beaches & coral reefs
tourism has a big imapact on kenya, and there are positive and negative impacts economicaly, socially & environmentally. Kenya is trying to reduce the negative impacts of tourism
- walking or hose back tours are being promoted over vehichle safaris, to preserve vegitation
- alternative activities that are less damaging that safaris are also being encouraged
kenya is also trying to maintain tourism
- kenya's tourist board & ministry of tourism have launched an advertising campaign in russia called 'magical kenya'
- kenya wildlife service is planning to build airstrips in ruma national park & mount elgo national park to make them more accessible for tourists. it also plans to spend £8 million improving roads, bridges & airstrips to improve accessibility.
- visa fees for adults were cut by 50% in 2009 to make it cheaper to visit the country. they were also scrapped for children under 16 to encourage more families to visit
Tourism in Extreme Environments: Antarctica
In the 1950s small scale tourism began in Antarctica when commercial shipping began 2 take a few passengers. The 1st specially designed cruise ship made its first voyage in 1969. Some 9000 tourists in 1992-93 have now grown to 33,824 (2010-11). this is 1000s more than scientific workers & their support staff who're there temporarily for research.
landing sites on antarctica are limited & quickly become honeypot sites. tourists have potential to cause environmental & ecological damage, so management is important. walking, kayaking, skiing, climbing, scuba diving & helicopter/small aircraft flights are some activities offered to toursits.
tourists only spend short time ashore, but impacts can be considerable. animals are disturbed by more than a few people. they don't like being touched bc not used to humans. if they leave as a results, they may abandon eggs & young.
coping with tourism- all tour operators members of IAATO which directs tourism 2 b safe & environmentally friendly. around 100 companies are involved. in line w the antarctica treaty, tourism is an acceptable activity in antarctica - its scaled that has 2 b controlled. visitiors arent allowd to visit sites of specific scientific research in order 2 conserve precious wildlife & landscapes.
although tourist numbers have increased rapidly, protections remains high priority. permit must be gained for any activities on the continent. no ship carrying over 500 passengers can land in antarctica. there is concern larger ships will eventually be allows to land & that the volume of tourists will be beyond sustainable limits.
Ecotourism: The Galapagos Islands
the 50 volcanic galapagos islands lie 1000km off west coast of south america in pacific ocean. belong to ecuador. around 90% of the islands are designated as national parks or marine reserve. protection begain in the 1930s. the islands are among the most fragile & precious ecosystems in the world, becoming the first unesco world heritage site in 1979, the areas is a biosphere reserve & whale sanctuary.
tourists visit under strict rules. they arrive mainly by small ships that tour the islands & allow people onshore only at specific locations in linited numbers. the tour boats are owned by locals & take 10-16 toursits each, many accompanied by professional guides. visitors given accurate info & prevented from causing damage.
- environmental - galapagos conservation trust receives approx £25 from each tourist out of cost of their holiday, this pays for conservation work on the islands
- economic - local people act as paid guides & small businesses have been started. locals run guest houses & provide other services
- honeypot sites - even though tourism is controlled, some sites over-used & showing signs of environmental stress
- pollution - oil pollution from boats can affect fragile marine ecosystems