- high crime rate
- poor housing quality
- clean environment
- ability to commute to work
- larger housing, lower density housing
- falling house prices leading to vandalism as houses are left empty
- shops have fewer customers and unemployment increases
- businesses in the city lose their best workers as they can find jobs closer to the village
- pollution in villages increases
Managing Population Problems-
- highly populated area, dependant on agriculture, puts pressure on resources and has a negative effect on quality of life.
what has been done?
- eduation of women
- increasing the number of health clinics
- making contraception more available
impact on population
- population structure has changed
- increased quality of life
- role of women has changed
- reduced population size, as people have realised that they don't need large families.
Terraced housing 19th century
- e.g Westcotes, built for workers, small garden and no garage, ideal for first time buyers, less than 1km away from the CBD.
- e.g Wycliffe, solve problems of overcrowding in the cities, cheap housing for students, 1-2 km away from CBD.
Suburban housing 1970's
- 4km away from the CBD, high quality of life for commuters, large gardens+garages, access to rare services such as retail parks.
Council housing- 1950's e.g. North Braun Stone
- 4-5km away from the CBD, cheap housing for returning troops, 1980's houses could be bought.
CBD - mixture of high/low order goods, traditional shopping site, large/small stores.
inner city- located near to cornershops, and shopping parades, selling low order convience goods.
suburban housing -access to rare services such as retail parks, access to shops that sell high order comparison goods such as tv's or furniture.
Changing location of services - flat land can allow expansion of stores, cheaper land prices, large amounts of free parking, accessibility through the M1 and M5.
Migration into Favelas
push factors; rainfall is low, water supply is unreliable, people displaced by dam projects, many people live in poverty, poor healthcare and education. low wages- mainly farmers. pull factors; chance of a regular wage, reliable supply of water, education is more accessible, better access to healthcare, entertainment 'bright lights'. impact on communities left behind; population structure alters, older people are left behind, food insecurity as there less young people for cultivation, band becomes infertile, weakening of local culture and language. what has been done? ; local authorities provide residents with materials to construct permanent accommodation. saved money can be spent on amenities such as electricity and water. developed infrastructure, improved sanitation.
problems; unemployment issues, shortage of housing, poor sanitation, poor building materials, and uncontrollable impacts of natural increase, overcrowding, increase in crime rate, unplanned growth of favelas, increased pressure on roads and infrastructure, unstable hillsides, increased chances of contracting diseases.
improving quality of life, The Chingapura Project; Sao Paulo; self help schemes, can hlp improve local skills, create a community, people encouraged to build their own homes, local authorities provide bulding materials, money saved can be used on basic amenties.
urban improvement scheme
problems in the docklands; few jobs, docks had closed, buildings and homes fell into a poor state of repair, area became run down.
What happened in 1981? The LDDC ( london docklands development corporation) was set up. its main aims were to attract new industry, encourage investments, establish new communities, and to createjobs.
what was done? transport improved, light railway created, new homes were built, new industry was attracted, employment increased, refurbished existing buildings.
Advantages; Employment increased, population increased within that area, new healthcare and education provision, land reclaimed, conservation areas created.
Disadvantages; new housing unaffordable for existing residents, only specialist jobs available, communities are broken up, shortage of low cost housing, most money was spent on buildings and offices instead of more on education and healthcare.
Short Term effects; shortage of food and water, people died due to malnourishment,required food and medical aid from other countries, mass migration.
Long Term Effects; 1 million people malnourished, regular aid from MEDC's improved agricultural output, desertification increased.
Impacts of Desertification; food supply cannot keep up with the demand of the growing population, wood used as firewood and building materials leads to soil erosion,loss of vegetation as animals grazing- also leads to soil erosion, money is spent on weapons instead of developing agriculture, ground cannot soak up the rain due to misuse of the land.
Short term Effects; hosepipes were banned, buildings were damaged as their foundations moved, stunted grass growth lef to shortage of cattle feed, forested areas were tinder dry led to forest fires and large areas being destroyed
Long Term Effects; legislation was introduced to try and reduce water consumption. plans to increase water storage and link reservoirs.
sustainability; Method 1; reduce demand - installation of water meters, develop water efficient products, education of consumers
Method 2; increase supply- water transfer schemes, more reservoirs can be built, international water transfer schemes developed, desalination plants can be built.
About Uk weather - prevailing SW winds, cool summers, frequent depressions in the winter.
Summer Tourism; Attracts many tourists as cliamate is sunnier and warmer. winter tourism; scotland is cold and wet but is the only place that can support skiing. Crop Farming; Conditions for growing wheat and barley exist in the south and east of england. Hill sheep farming; scotland, wet and cold - farm sheep that can handle those conditions. Water Supply; Water held in reservoirs and transferred to the areas that require it. flooding; early warning systems and flood prevention schemes are used to reduce the threat, shopping; cold and wet, covered shopping malls solved problems. snow and ice; businesses lose millions. scottish highlands are more at risk. Storms and Gales; industry was disrupted and insurance companies had to handle masses of claims.
Causes; intense heat, air rises rapidly, air rises and cools causing intense periods of rain, moist cold air is sucked in which replaces the rising warm air. Himalayas stop the movement of the rain, the rest of the rain falls on the mountains.
How does the monsoon affect quality of life? ; rains for 3 months, people spend a lot of time indoors, intensive period of rice planting as the soil becomes workable, Dhaka, the capital is underwater for 3 months, 1/4 of Bangladesh is flooded, trees cut down for firewood and house building leads to soil erosion, rain washes soil off the hillside into rivers, losing valuble nutrients.
positive effects; relief from heat, allows crops to be irrigated, jobs provided through farming, monsoon holidays, rice crops are planted, helps vegation to grow, rain fills the rivers for the rest of the year.
negative effects; sewers cant cope, flooding makes it hard to get to work, floods allow diseases to spread, rivers are fast flowing, boats sink and people die trying to cross, increased soil erosion and valuable nutrients are lost, rivers become silted up.
Water managment Scheme
about the colorado river; main source of water comes from the snow which melts on the mountain ranges at the river source.
controlling the flow; dams were built to control the flow of the river, a series of dams were built like lock gates on a canal.
Effect on people and the environment; urban centres are dependant on the colorado dam system, rapid population growth as the area is scenic, water allows trees to grow and swimming pools to be built, increase in traffic pollution, and smog levels, underground water sources are decreasing, miscalculations made when too much water flowed into the system, power surge caused damage to settlements downstream, homes and businesses were destroyed.