Birth rate- A measure of an area's fertility. It is expressed as the number of live births per 1000 people in a year.
Death rate- The number of deaths per 1000 people in 1 year.
Life expectancy-The average numbers of years from birth that a person can expect to live.
Longevity- The increase in life expectancy over a period of time. It is a direct result of improved medical provision and increased levels of economic development. People live longer and this creates an older population.
Natural Change- The change in size of a population caused by the interrelationship between birth and death rates. If birth rate exceeds death rate, a population will increase. If death rate exceeds birth rate, a population will decline.
Fertility- The number of live births per 1000 women aged 15-49. Also average number of children people will have.
Infant mortality rate- The number of deaths of children under the age of 1 year expressed per 1000 live births per year.
Forced migration- The migrant has to migrate because of circumstances.
Migration- A permanent or semi permanent change in residence.
Net migration- The difference between the numbers of in-migration and out-migration in an area.
Voluntary migration- The migrant makes the decision to migrate.
Population structure- The proportion of males and females in a n area, usually in the form of age distributions.
Population density- The number of people in an area. The density of population is obtained by dividing the total population of the country
Demographic change in the UK
Falling death rate
- 1875 was a time of rapid urbanisation, which alerted public afficials and enlightened industrialists to the urgent need for improvements in public health.
- The provision of clean, piped water and the installation of sewage systems, together with improved personal and domestic cleanliness, saw the incidence of diarrhoeal diseases and typhoid fall rapidly.
- Increase income from factory wages led to more food being consumed by the working class and to a wider range of food products being demanded.
- Better nutrition played a big role in the decline in infant mortality
- Public higine was well educated with soap being weel advertised.
Demographi change in the UK
Falling birth rate
- After 1875, there was a reduction in birth rate.
- Medical science playied a big role of the controle of mortality, due to more effective drug treatments. Surgery grew more advanced.
- Increaseing attention to materernity and child welfare.
- Improvements in nutrition
- There was a change in the view of a family, With there the desire for smaller families due to the financial costs.
- The introduction of condoms have meant that the relationship between desired family size and family size stayied strong.
- The increase importance of women in the work place.
- The birth rate in Thailand has fallen rapidly, mainly due to the National Family Planning Programme. This was;
- Puplic information programmes to ensure that everyone knows about contraception methods.
- Advertising the benefits of the 2 child family
- Establishing health centres throughout the country to provide mainly free contraception
- Training paramedics and midwives, who are mainly from local villages and, therefore , are known and trusted. They provide healthcare for mothers and babies, so more babies are surviving
Iran youthful population
- The urban revolution- women who have moved to the cities usually have fewer children then those who stay in the rural areas. 67% of Iran's population is now classed as urben
- The education revolution- there has been a slow but steady increase in deucation for girls and women.Women who are educated are likely to marry later, become more aware of family planning and gain paid employment.
- The working revolution- women who work in the cities find it more difficult to arrange childcare, and hence have fewer children.
- The migration revolution- women who migrate from Iran to other countries have more westernised lifestyle with smaller families and more consumer goods.
As fertility decreases, there will be a greater proportion of people in the economically active age range.
Economic migration-The USA
- In 1990's a considerable influx took place which reopened the immigration debate. More then 5 million immagrants arrived between 1991 and 1996.
- Some people argue that immigrants were taking jobs, there was racial tension and impact on thw elfare system.
- There are large immigrant communites in California. New York, Florida and Texas. This is due to existing communities, the availability of work the land borders mexico.
- Estimates of 2.5 to 4 million.
- A debate of weather migrants are benficial. Foregn-born residents are more likely to recevive public assistance. Immigrants pay less tax. Over 40 years migrants will pay more far more to the state in taxes then they will take from it.