Receives over 5 million visitors a year. Tourists are attracted by the climate, attractions and infrastructure. Tourism is responsible for over 60% of its GDP.
- Provides jobs for locals
- Local infrastructure has been improved
- Locals use attractions made for tourists (e.g. Siam Park)
- Large areas of habitat have been destroyed aroud Los Cris and Costa Adeje
- Noise pollution is a problem in Las Americas
- Local culture is being lost in many of the tourist areas
Montserrat Eruption 1
Montserrat is an island found in the Carribean sea.
1995 Sofriere Hills volcano began giving off warning signs
It had been dormant for 300 years and then became active for 5 years.
The most intense eruption acurred in 1997.
Mainly consisting of pyroclastic flow.
It is found on a destructive plate boundary. This caused an increase in pressure which was released through an eruption.
19 people died. This number is low because of evacuations to the other side of the island before the eruption.
Sudan Food Shortages
South Sudan rely on neighbouring countries such as Kenya, Uganda and other parts of Sudan. This increases the price of food contributing extensively to food shortages.
It occured when Sudan began exporting oil in 1988, causing a massive decrease in agricultural production as they became focused on the oil sector.
- Reliance on other countries increased the price of food (importing costs)
- Food is too expensive too import, people have very little food
- Soil became eroded as the agricultural sector was abandoned and can no longer produce crops
- Government are making food production top priority
- Attracting agricultural investors from other countries
Haiti Earthquake 1
12th of January 2010 at 16:53
Magnitude of 7.0Mw
Epicentre located near town of Lèogâne, 25km from the capital, Port-au-Prince.
Haiti lies on a conservative plate boundary where a slippage occured the boundary causing the earthquake.
3 million people affected = 1.3 made homeless, 300000 injured and 200000 killed.
- Much of its infrastructure was destroyed
- Severe airport and port damage
- 30000 commercial buildings collapsed
Montserrat Eruption 2
- Large areas of Montserrat were destroyed, Plymouth (capital) was completely completely buried in ash and mud
- Many homes and buildings were destroyed
- Their only hospital and airport was destroyed
- Unemployment rose due to collapse in tourist industry ad increased long term due to the volcanoes precense
Haiti Earthquake 2
- Neighbouring countries provided essential supplies (e.g. water and medical supplies).
- Emergency rescue and medical teams arrived from numerous countries.
- Temporary field hospitals set up.
- After one year 1000 capms still set up.
- Schools and hospitals being rebuilt.
- Support for farmers to grow crops.
South Wales Steel Manufacturing
Steel is produced in South Wales because there are large amounts of:
- Raw materials (coal, limestone, ore-bearing rocks)
- Fuel (coal)
- Markets for the coal (railways, shipping, navy, factories powered by coal, exporting)
- Labour (many people in need of work)
- Transport links (river and canals to transport coal and/or iron)
Factories were originally built in valleys because that was where most raw materials were located (coal mines). As well as rivers (water too cool machinery) and near many small villages (large work force available)
They relocated to Port Talbot, because they ran out of coal in the mines and had to import it, there was easier access from the docks and didn't have to pay further costs to take it up to valleys as ships could directly distribute the coal to factory, they could unload directly.
Lesotho Highlands Water Project 2
South Africa was also affected by the project
- Increase the amount of clean water available
- People in Johannesbrg had to pay water bills before they could receive any water
- 50% of water is lost through leaks in piping
Three Gorges Dam Energy Resources
It is found in Hubei on the Yangstze River, China.
The estimated amount it would cost is aprox. 180million yuan (22.5million dollars).
It was built to control the amount of water allowed through and prevent flooding. Also creates electricity and water storage supply to support demand from rise in population.
- It is a sustainable resource
- Causes no harm to atmosphere
- Locals were relocated to build dam
- Can cause death of river life and erosion
Lesotho Highlands Water Project 1
- The economic gains from selling water is used to develop infrastructure
- New jobs created to work on buildig dams
- New roads, tunnels and bridges were built due to project
- Creates usable HEP energy which is renewable
- They don't receive any water made as it's sold to South Africa
- Thousands of hectares of agriculture have been destroyed
- AIDS, prostitution and alcohol abuse has risen
- Many people were displaced due to the dam being built
- About 75% of its electricity comes from nuclear energy.
- France is the worlds largest exporter of electricity, due to low cost of generation.
- Gains over 3billion per year from this.
- They have never had any fatalitites due to nuclear power.
- An enormous explotion in a nuclear powerplant.
- Caused large amounts of radioactive particles to be dispersed in the atmosphere
Niagara Falls Waterfalls
Niagara Falls is found on the international border between Canada and the USA.
It is 51m long.
The water comes from the Niagara River.
Overtime Niagara falls has eroded more and more each year.
Japan Earthquake Proofing Buildings
The company who make the the system is called Air Danshin Systems Inc.
California Earthquake Proofing Buildings
Reinforced Masonry Structures:
A construction system where steel reinforcement is ambedded in the mortar joints of masonry or placed in holes and after filled with concrete or grout is called reinforced mainsory.
China, Asia Anti-natal policies
The policy was introduced in 1979 as the rate of growth was 1.9% and continued until 2015, growth rate is now 0.7%.
Government wanted to reduce the population after 20 million died in famines.
- Improved healthcare, education and childcare provisions.
- Withdrawal of benefits
- Large fines
-Loss of jobs
It was a success as it prevented 400million births, however it resulted in "Little Emperor Syndrome", more boys than girls (gender imbalance).
France, Europe Pro-natal policies
Fears of labour shortages and an ageing population.
How they did it:
- Offered cash incentives for families which have more than 3 children.
- Increased maternity leave.
- Reduced public trasport fees for large families.
- Improved pension schemes for mothers with large families.
It was succesful as birth rates rose although still below the replacement level.
Poland to UK International Migration
Poland joined the EU in 2004 resulting in a large scale migration to the UK.
PUSH FACTORS: unemployment is 40% in Poland and average income is low
PULL FACTORS: unemployment is 6% education and healthcare are free, salaries are 2x higher.
- Filling labour gaps
- Improving cultural diversity
- Increased income from taxes and redyces dependancy ratio
- Few jobs for workers in UK and services under greater pressure
- Money lost through remittances
- Racism increases
N. Brazil to Rio de Janeiro Internal Migration
Moving from rural North East Brazil to cities such as Rio de Janeiro or Sao Paulo.
Land is sparse in rural areas, the quality of life is low and job prospects are limited.
Urban areas are believed to offer more job prospects and better services.
Many migrants end up in favelas.
Nigeria, Africa Overpopulation
Lagos has seen large scale immigartion from rural Nigeria:
- Over 50% lack access to clean water leading to diseases
- High rates of unemployment have caused crime levels to increase
- Many can't access education and healthcare
- Traffic congestion is causing atmospheric pollution and damaging people's health.
Niger, Africa Rapid growth population
TFR is the highest globally at 7.1
Birth rates are high as;
- Access to family planning is low
- Children are seen as a source of labour
- Culturally large families are preffered.
Niger is increasing the legal age of marriage and access to facility planning to decrease to birth rates.
Eurasia, Russia Declining population
Population is expected to decline from 143million to 111million by 2050.
Death rates are high because;
- High levels of alcoholism, smoking, pollution and poverty
- High numbers of diseases
Birth rates are low as;
- Women are educated, so they choose a career
Emigration rates are high.
The governement are trying to encourage families to have more children through cash incentives.
In December 2015 over 34cm of rain fell in 24hrs
Storm Desmond meant that much of the ground was already saturated.
Over 30million had been spent on the flood defences after the 2005 floods.
River Eden overtopped the flood defences, flooding over 5,000 homes.
EA gave people warning that areas of the city would flood so many were evacuated to emergency shelter.
The Sahara Desert and Sahel Desertification
Desertification is the process of land turning into desert.
Sahel is found along the southern border of the Sahara Desert.
- Animals are allowed to overgraze the land so vegetation is eaten, making the soil susceptible to wind and water erosion.
- Over cultivation means that the soil loses its nutrients, so vegetation cannot grow, making the soil susceptive to wind and water erosion.
- Overpopulation is increasing the demand for food and resources causing dersertification to intensify.
Desertification is causing problems such as famine, dust storms and conflicts.
Experiences high levels of relief rainfall due to prevailing winds from the Indian Ocean.
9th poorest country in the world so many farmers are subsistence farmers (farm for their own food, not to sell)
Growing population has increased the need for farmland resulting in deforestation.
Increased popularity of cash crops has resulted in deforestation.
Main method of deforestation is slash and burn and rates of clearance are increasing as the nutrients cycle is broken.
M4 Corridor High-tech industries
It is the area either side of the M4 (running from London to Cardiff).
It's famous for its high concentration of high tech industries.
TRANPORT - it connects to the M25 and M5 meaning that industries have easy access to international airports; goods and people transported easily.
LABOUR - close tyo large pools of workers (e.g. Reading and Bristol)
UNIVERSITIES - Cardiff, Bristol, Reading and London all have large universities too supply high skilled labour.
ENVIRONMENT - scenic landscapes (e.g. Cotswolds, attracts workers).
MARKET - the south of England is wealthy so there is large potential market.
EXISTING INDUSTRIES - ideas and materials can be shared amongst similar industries in the region.
Japan lake Biwa Pollution
Largest freshwater lake in Japan, located near to Kyoto and Osaka.
Rapid population growth and economic growth resulted in heavy pollution of the lake.
Agricultural chemicals poisoned the lake resulting in eutrophication.
Heavy metals from industry killed aquatic life.
Since the 1970s Japan has become more concerned with the environment and have passed a series of laws to reduce level of pollution.