Case Studies

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Boscastle 2004 Causes

Physical causes:

- 500mm/4 hours
- Confluence of Valency and Jordan Rivers
- Impermeable ground + steep slopes

Human Causes:

- Unprepared
- Building on floodplains
- Deforestation in Valleys

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Boscastle 2004 Effects

Short-term effects:

- Roads blocked 
- 100 cars swept away
- vistor's centre + B&B destroyed

Long-term effects:

- £20 million insurance claims
- 25 businesses properties destroyed
- Tourism (makes up 90% income) damaged relationship (cancellations)

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Boscastle 2004 Responses

Short-term Responses:

- Sand bags distributed
- RAF helicopters S&R

Long-term Responses:

- £4.6 million flood defence scheme 2008
- River bed lowered by 0.75m (on average)
- New defences (overflow valves) added

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Bangladesh 2004 Causes

Physical causes:

- 80% Delta
- Cyclones frequently hit
- River silt raised river bed (increased soil erosion)

Human causes:

- Poverty (3 P's)
- Deforestation
- Global warming (Himalayan ice caps melting)

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Bangladesh 2004 Effects

Short-term effects:

- 600 people killed
- 100,000 people effected by water-borne diseases
- Rice crop devastated

Long-term effects:

- $7 billion damage
- 30 million homeless

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Bangladesh 2004 Responses

Short-term responses:

- water purifiaction tablets distributed
- free seeds given to farmers 
- temporary embankment repairs

Long term responses:

- Reducing deforestation
- Introducing flood warning systems
- Dams planned

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France - Pro Natalist Policy

Incentives:

- £1064 given for having a 3rd child
- 100% mortage paid + preferential treatment for 3 bed council housing
- 30% off public transport for 3 children families
- 3 years of paid parental leave
- Lowered retirement age, 3 children = 53 

Limited success:

- Birth rate still falling, just less rapidly

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Indonesia - Transmigration Policy: Information

Aim:

- Try and decrease population density in Java + Bali

Background information:

- 240 million people living on 17,000 islands
- Sparsely populated islands: Sumatra + West Papua
- 2.5 million people moved

Incentives:

- Promise of farmland + equipment
- First 18months receive living allowance

Today:

- Very limited due to funds
- 250,000 wanted to move in 2010 but only 10,000 did (cost: $160million)

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Indonesia - Transmigration Policy: Impacts

Economic:

- $7,000 per person to move
- funded by World Bank + Government

Environmental:

- Increased rate of deforestation in West Papua
- Overuse of resources as they try to pay for policy (logging, mining)

Social:

- Rivalry with Aeta tribes
- Poverty not solved just moved

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Poland to UK migration: Facts

Facts:

- In 2007 there were 607,000 job vacanies in the UK
- The Office of National Statistics suggested, since 1997: 1.67million jobs were created in the British economy and 98% filled by migrants

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Poland to UK migration: Effects on Source country

Positives:

- Remittances £1 billion

Negatives:

- Brain drain (500 doctors)
- Population fell by 0.3% from 2003-2007
- Shortage of workers = Slowed economy

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Poland to UK migration: Effects on Host country

Positives:

- Migrants adding £2.8billion to economy each year
- 63% Polish migrants 25-43 and 40% degree
- 10% located in rural areas, helping to support local services

Negatives:

- Migration set to increase population to 65million by 2016
- 2007, 42 rationally motivated attacks reported
- Migrants brought 32,000 dependents

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Haiti Earthquake 2010: Effects

Primary effects:

- 230,000 dead
- 2 million effected

Secondary effects:

- $11.5million damage
- 1.5 million homeless
- 700 killed by cholera (mainly children)

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Haiti Earthquake 2010: Responses

Immideate responses:

- UK disaster commitee raised £100 million
- 200,000 people received money/food for searching through rubble
- High tech sensor flown in from MEDCS (Dominican Republic/US)

Long-term responses:

- 3/4 buildings repaired
- 7,000 transmigrated from Port-au-Prince
- $100million World Bank Pledge (resettlement)

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Kobe Earthquake 1995: Effects

Primary:

- 6,434 dead
- 40,000 seriously injured

Secondary:

- 300,000 homeless
- $200billion damage
- 1 million without water for 10 days

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Kobe and Haiti Earthquake causes:

Kobe:

- Subductive plate boundary

Haiti:

- Conservative plate boundary
- Fault runs through capital, Port-au-Prince

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Tohoku 2011 Tsunami: Information

Causes:

- movement along fault close to subduction zone (Pacific plate and NA plate)

Formation of Tsunamis:

- Tectonic movement causing earthquake
- Epicentre on sea bed
- Sea is forced upwards
- Sea movement increases in amplitude and wavelength decreases as it get shallow

Sendai was the port city which was effected the most.

100,000 Japense Soldiers sent to help

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Tohoku 2011 Tsunami: Effects

Primary:

- Parts of Japan shifted 2.4 metres east
- Over 20,000 dead
- 3, 375 missing

Secondary:

- 5-8m upthrust along 180km of sea bed (Tsunami reached 39m in Miyalo city) 
- Hugh coastal flooding
- 200,000 people evacuated from Fukashima as Nuclear power plant effected
- $309 billion damage
- Gas lines ruptured + caught fire

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Mount Pinatubo 1991: Effects

Primary effects:

- 847 killed
- Ash cloud reached 22 miles into the air
- Pyroclastic flows reached 40-50mph

Secondary effects:

- 20 million tonnes of Sulphur dioxide released into stratosphere
- $500 million damage
- 1.2 million people displaced, moved to slums in Manila

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Mount Pinatubo 1991: Responses

Immideate:

- 750, 000 evacuated = great success for prediction 
- 18,000 evacuated from Clark Air Base
- Health advisories issues, people suffering from: asthma + sore eyes

Long-term:

- 10 billion peso fund set aside for aid + resettlement
- 5 stages of volcanic alert issued in papers/radio/tv delievered daily: done by N.G.Os. (1 = low level seismic disturbance, 5 = major eruption in progress)

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The Andes fold mountains: Uses

Farming:

- Terraces built into valley sides (trap water)
- Subsistence farming (soya, maize)

HEP:

- Narrow valleys idea = cut cost + increase water velocity
- Melting snow fuels dam

Mining:

- Yanacocha gold mine (largest in world)
- Nearby town of Cajamarca population 30k - 240k in 2005
- Gold extracted using cyanide = water contamination

Tourism:

- Inca trail/ Machu Picchu
- Natural attractions

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The Andes fold mountains: Problems

Soils:

- Thin, infertile soil = plants cannot root well + easily washed away
- Better at the valleys than slope
- Contaminated water from mining

Relief:

- Steep sided valleys = hard + expensive to build on 
- Low levels of oxygen in areas as reaches 7,600km in altitude
- cold climate = short growing period

Communication:

- Bad telecommunication
- Long emergency response times
- Poor infrastructure in areas

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Supervolcano eruption: Yellowstone

Effects:

  • 87,000 dead
  • 10,000km2 land destroyed
  • 15cm of ash covering a 1,000km radius (1/3 effected would die)
  • Volcanic Winter = Global tempertures fall by 12-15 degrees
  • Constant snow fall for 3 years in NA, Asia, EU
  • Crops fail = 40% World's population would starve
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London Dockland Corporation

  • 24,000 new homes: - 70% apartments = attracting economically active population
  • Large scale projecy
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Hulme, Manchester

  • Smaller scale project
  • 1990s
  • £37.5 million project building new homes + improving existing ones
  • Built mainly for working class families
  • Combination of semi-detached + terraced housing
  • Good transport links
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Kibera, Nairobi

Background information:

- 800,000 - 1 million people living in 1 square mile
- Most people live below $1 a day
- Squatter settlement = slum/favela but the land is not owned by the people on it

Problems:

  • 25% of the population suffer from HIV/AIDS
  • 100,000 orphans (high levels)
  • 84% don't have access to clean water
  • 40 people per standpipe (public tap)

Solutions:

  • self-help scheme (flat-pack)
  • site and service (pre-built)
  • local authority (ikea)
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Self help - Practical Action

Britsh charity creating cheap building materials such as: building blocks and roof tiles, they are part of a self-help scheme - trying to aid the people living slums improve their conditions

Adv: low cost

Disadv: might not know how to build

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Tabitha Medical Centre

13 eco friendly rooms, with 2 full-time physicians and 6 clinicians

How Does It Help?

  • Provides HIV/AIDs counselling 
  • Providing youth friendly reproductive health clinics (educting young people)
  • 40,000 visit the clinic each year
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Daughters United

Centre for reproductive health and provides a safe place for adolescent girls, after 2 years the girls become Alumni and stay on helping to educate more girls.

How Does It Help?

  • Increases the education of young girls making them less likely to encounter: HIV/AIDS, Prostitution, Rape, Poverty
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Community of Kibera

10,000 people were displaced from their homes after presidental election in which thousands of houses were burned to the ground.

How Does It Help:

  • Creates a place of refuge for people were they are taught how to mediate violence, meaning that younger people are less likely to join gangs
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Impacts: Carolina for Kibera

Social Impacts:

  • 3,200 children vacinated against the common flu
  • 600 people accessed HIV care/treatment
  • 315 members joined school based health clubs

Economic Impacts:

  • 2,400 clients pay 415 shillings per month for garbage collection
  • 35 youths are employed by this
  • 17 small businesses graduated from GET-IT (computer based entreprenurship)
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Problems: Industrialisation

Air:

1984, Union Carbide factory exploded in Bhopal India.

  • 8,000 killed instantly
  • 20,000 killed over 20 years (in total)
  • 50,000 left permenantly disabled

Shanghai, China. There is now 30,000 tonnes of waste created each day and industries are responsible for 70% of CO2 emissions

Water:

Ganges River, India. Contains: untreated waste, faeces, harmful chemicals. This is water in which people bath/play meaning water-borne diseases widespread.

General Waste:

  • 4.5million new computers arrive in Mumbai each year + broken down by very poor for metal
  • Releases lead and means people doing it have 10x more lead in blood = die sooner
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Improvement strategies: pollution

Water:

Electrical crematoriums installed on the Ganges

Ganga action plan1986 attempted to clean Ganges of waste/disease it was partially successful

Water/general waste:

  • The Huangpu and Suzhou rivers given $200million loan from WB to improve water quality.
  • Solid waste disposal units installed in most houses, fertilisers is created and given to rural areas

Air:

  • 55 flyovers built to try and reduce congestion in Mumbai and air pollution
  • Mumbai has 58k taxis running on Natural Gas
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New Islington - sustainable city

  • Small scale sustainable community
  • Mixed-use housing: - 66 houses, 800 apartments (1-2 bed apt. + ground floor studio flats)
  • Young economically active residents (majority)
  • 'Chips' building = combined office space + apartments
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Solutions to ethnic segregation

LEEDS

  • Provides english classes - greater chance of getting better job
  • Provide basic working/job skills - greater chance of getting better job
  • Community centres/ events, e.g. cultural events, food fairs - brings communities together 
  • Encourage supermarkets to provide ethnically diverse products
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China

  • Introduced after the famine of 1959-1961, in which 35 million people died, there was a baby boom which was set to lead them into another famine

Incentives:

  • 5-10% salary increase
  • priority housing, pension and family benefits

Disincentives:

  • 10% salary decrease
  • Fine so large it would cause bankrupcy
  • Have to pay for child's education and health care

Successes:

  • Stopped the population doubling over 40 years
  • Women can have successful careers without having to worry about childcare
  • The predicted famine was avoided
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China changes & problems

Problems:

  • 60 million more men than women
  • Mass infanticide of girls 
  • 15million orphaned girls

Changes since 1990:

  • 2015, the policy has been relaxed to 2 children to try and raise Natural change to the Replacement rate
  • Ethnic minorities can have more children to prevent the loss of the minority
  • It is illegal to discrimate based on gender
  • Sichuan Province EQ policy relaxed to 2 kids
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Epping Forest

  • Located in South-east England
  • Covers 2500 HA
  • Managed by the City of London Corporation
  • Leisure activities: horse riding, running and mountain biking

Management:

  • Trees are being pollarded (cut to 2-5m)
  • Large area declared as Site of Special Scientific Interest - protecting vegetation and animals found there
  • Damaging activities such as mountain biking is being controlled - but bikers ignore signposts and continue to damage the area
  • Replanting areas have been set aside - no public access
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Malaysia management

National Forest Policy:

  • 1977 National Forestry Act aims:

1. Increase profit from trees => processing into planks
2. Increase research & conservation

  • Selective Management System:

- 1-2 years before survey area to measure impacts and plan
- Felling done by government approved fellers
- After study to measure impacts

National Parks:

  • Gov identify forest estates which become protected
  • 10% forest land cannot be felled
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Malaysia management

Forest Stewardship Council:

  • International organisation promoting sustainability
  • FSC label = from sustainably managed source

Developing eco-tourism:

  • See natural beauty without damaging the env = promoting sustainability
  • Local materials used to create homes + renewable energy sources
  • Local tour guide with small tour groups only
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Malaysia Threats

Logging:

  • 1980 rampant logging = world's largest exporter of wood
  • Illegal logging in Borneo on marginal land 

Energy production (HEP):

  • $2 billion Bakun Dam, flooded 1000s HA forest, 230km2 destroyed
  • 10,000 indigenous people forced out

Resettlement:

  • Transmigration policy
  • 15,000 HA felled for settlement + plantations

Fires:

  • Slash & burn can cause wild fires
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Thar Desert

Information:

  • Runs from NW India - Pakistan (same size as the UK)
  • 30million people living there

Climate:

  • Low rainfall 120-240mm per year
  • Summer temp. in July reaches 53 degrees celcius

Economic opportunities:

  • Rajasthan rich in minerals, Gypsum, limestone, marble
  • Popular tourist destination
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Thar Desert challenges + management

Challenges:

  • Overgrazing + overcultivation = desertification (soil weaker = easily erode)
  • Fire wood is decreasing rapidly as used in cooking
  • Salinisation = soil fertility decreases (water evap. leaving layer of salt = poisonous to plants)

Sustainable Management:

  • 1977, Desert Development Plan = conserve water, land, livestock
  • Desert National Park 3,000 km2 of arid land + species protected
  • Ber tree can survive with low rainfall + high temps + produce edible fruit
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Sonoran Desert

Information:

  • Combined populations of Tucson + Phoenix doubled from 1.8 million to 3.6 million over 20 years

Economic opportunities:

  • 70/80s lots of work as builders
  • Large golf resorts (waiter)
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Sonoran Desert Challenges + management

Challenges:

  • Mountains block moisture from reaching desert = low rainfall
  • Water table decreasing rapidly as aquifers are being over used

Sustainable management: using wealth to overcome problem

  • Dams on Colorado river conserve water + source of HEP (Hoover Dam)
  • Irrigation canals created by Central Arizona Plan 500km long costing $4billion
  • Water regulations to try and conserve water
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United Nation Human settlement programme

UN Habitat

  • Provides affordable electricity 1300 kenyan shillings/ £2.25 per house
  • 15 year long project began in 2003 and plans to rehouse thousands of Kiberan residents done by the Kenyan Gov and UN
  • In the first year 770 people were successfully re-housed in houses with all services
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Gap year students

Help with local community projects

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