Cardiovascular System

Notes on the cardiovascular system

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Cardiac output = every heart beat that pumps blood into the heart.

= stroke volume x heart rate.

Stroke Volume = over a minute, the total amount of blood pumped out of the heart.

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Immediate effects of exercise on body...

- Heart rate increases - oxygen is needed to get to muscles.

- Breathing rate increases - oxygen is needed to get to muscles.

- Body temperature increases - muscles generate heat.

- Sweating - helps to cool body down.

- Muscles start to ache - muscles get tiny tears in them and when at rest muscles will heal and get stronger.

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Long-term effects of exercise on Cardiovascular Sy

- Increased strength and size of heart

- Stroke volume is increased

- Resting heart rate is decreased

- Cardiac output in increased

- Blood Pressure is reduced

- Veins and arteries are healthier and more efficient.

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Negative effects on Cardiovascular System...

- High cholesterol

- Recreational drugs

- Stress

- Sedentary lifestyle

Cholesteral is a fatty acid in the blood called lipoproteins, HDL (high density lipoproteins) are good to have in your body and LDL (low density lipoproteins) are bad to have in your body.

Recreational Drugs can be in the form of smoking which leads to a build up of LDL's and alcohol which speeds up your heart rate, affects coordination, slows down reactions, increased blood pressure and damages many major organs.

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Negative effects on Cardiovascular System (continu

Stress can increase your blood pressure and can increase your heart rate.

Sedentary lifestyle means your heart will have to work harder as it will not be very strong and it will therefore become a lot weaker over time.

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