Cardiovascular System

overview of the cardiovascular system

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  • Created by: Jade
  • Created on: 17-01-11 12:57

Aerobic System

aerobic - a process taken place in the presence of oxygen

anaerobic - a process taken place in the absence of oxygen

respiratory system (via breathing takes in O2 and removes CO2 in the Lungs) -------->

 heart (recieves blood from lungs and acts as a double pump forces blood around the vascular system to the lungs and body tissues) -------->

 vascular system (blood and blood vessels which transportd and directs O2/CO2 to and from the lungs hear and body ----> body tissues/muscles ----> back to the heart-----> back to the respiratory systems

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Blood Vessels of the Heart

1) superior/inferior venae cavae - deoxygenated blood from body to right atrium

2) pulmonary artery - deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs

3) pulmonary veins x4 - oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium

4) aorta - oxygenated blood from left ventricle to whole body

5) coronary arteries - left and right braches from the aorta encircle and supply the heart muscle with oxygen and glucose

6) coronary veins - drain deoxygenated blood directly back into the right atrium via the coronary sinus

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Conduction system

cardiac impulse - electrical impulse responsible for stimulating the heart to contract

heart is myogenic - it generates its own electrical impulses

  • cardiac impulse initiates from the SA node (pacemaker) in the wall of the right atrium
  • the impulse travels through the atria walls causing them to contract
  • the impulse activates the AV node which passes the impulse to the bundle of His in the septum
  • the av node delays the impulse allowing the contraction of the atria ro finish before the ventricles begin to contract
  • the bundle of His splits into left and right brasnches and spreads the impulse to the bottom of the hear
  • then up around the ventricle walls via purkinje fibres causing the ventricle to contract
  • the ventricles relax and cycle is repeated
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Cardiac Cycle - events of one heartbear

Diastole - relaxation of the heart

Systole - contraction of the heart

Heart Rate - number of times the ventricle beat in one minute

Bradycardia - resting HR below 60

Hypertrophy - Increase in size of heart muscle wall

Stroke Volume - blood ejected from the hear ventricles every beat

Cardiac output - volume of blood ejected by heart ventricles in one minute

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Heart Rate Response to Exercise

Stroke volume increase as running speed/intensity increase up to 40-60%

Heart rate

  • increase before exercise - anticipatory rise - adrenalin
  • decrease rapidly after exercise

cardiac output  increase directly inline with exercise intensity

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Cardiac Control Centre located in medulla oblongat

ANS controlls the CCC meaning it is involuntary consists of motor nerves (stimulate muscle tissue), consists of sensory nerves (transmit info to central nervous system) from either sympathetic or parasympathetic

Factors Affecting the CCC....

Neural control : - proprioreceptors, chemoreceptors, baroreceptors

hormonal control: - adrenalin which increase HR

intrinsic Control: - temp increase, venous return increase

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