Cardiovascular system

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CA System and Exercise

Heart Rate- The number of times the heart beats per minute.

Stroke Volume- The amount of blood taken away from the heart each beat.

Systolic Blood Pressure-The pressure when blood is being pumped out of the heart.

Immediate effects on the CA system during exercise:

All of the above increase immediately after/during exercise.

These immediate effects are beneficial because it means:

- An increased oxygen delivery and increased removal of carbon dioxide.

- An increased rate of blood flow and therefore an increased oxygen delivery to working muscles.

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CA System: Adaptations 1

The role of the CA System during exercise:

1. Transport oxygen in blood to the working muscles

2. Reove waste products

3. Return the blood to the lungs for oxygenation

Regular participation in physical activity will result in training adaptations taking place.

What are The adaptations of taking part in exercise is:

-Increase in the size and strength of the heart (cardiac hypertrophy)- This is a benefit as it is good for health and it reduces the chances of coronary heart disease, it also is good for fitness as the heart can contract more forefully letting more oxygen being delivered around the body.

-Increase in stroke volume- This is a benefit because it means more blood is ejected from the heart each beat, so an increased oxygen delivery.

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CA System: Adaptations 2

Other Long term Effects on the CA sytem:

- Lower RH

- Increased maximum cardiac output during exercise

- A larger capillary network-


-Greater training zone - with an increased stroke vol the heart needs to beat less to eject the same amount of blood.

- Increased oxygen delivery

- more efficient recovery

- increased blood flow supplying oxygen to working muscles

To increase cardiac output you can: increasee heart rate, increase the stroke volume or increase both the heart rate and stroke volume.

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Blood pressure and cholesterol

- Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the blood vessel wall as it travels around the body.

-Systolic blood pressure -pressure in the arteries whilst the heart is contracting.

-Diostolic blood pressure-pressure in the arteries whilst the heart is relaxing and filling with blood.

Diostolic blood pressure is lower than the systolic pressure because blood flow is slower whilst the heart is relaxing.

- If blood pressure is too high it can put a strain on the arteries and heart.

High cholesterol can be caused by having a diet with too much saturated fat, its found in foods such as butter and fatty meat.

LDL-( low density lipoprotein)- bad cholesterol that can cause deposits to build up in the arteries. This makes it harder for blood to circulate and can cause heart disease.

HDL-(high density liproprotein)- good cholersterol that can take away cholesterol and can cause it to be broken down.

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Blood pressure and cholesterol Pt.2

Effects of an unhealthy diet:

- Fats can build up in the blood vessels, which would result in high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

A healthy balanced diet will have a positive impact on blood pressure and cholesterol.

Long term benefits ofr regular exercise

- Lowering resting blood pressure

-Lowering cholesterol levels

These benefits will mean there is a reduced likelihood of a stroke or coronary heart disease.

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