- Created by: Emmatjies
- Created on: 07-05-20 12:46
Blood - Anaemia
It is a sign of a disease.
It can cause fatigue, and shortness of breath on exacebation.
Can be cuase by a loss of eyrthrocytes, lack of RBC production, and a low level of haemoglobin.
- Iron deficiency anaemia- is caused by blood loss, and is diagnosed through blood tests
- Aplastic Anaemia is when there is damage to bone marrow affecting RBC production
- Haemolytic anaemia- when the life span of RBC is reduced, caused by medication or is congenital diagnosed through U/S spleen and gall bladder and it causes gall stones.
A genetic defect in haemoglobin formation
Causes; an enlarged spleen, heart disease, bone deformity, increased infection risk.
Treatment options are prevention though genetic counselling, Blood transfusion, Bone marrow transplant.
Diagnosed through a skeletal survey.
Sickle Cell Disease
A genetic disease prodominant in Afro-caribbean populations
Abnormal haemoglobin causes the sickle shape in RBCs, which makes them hard and prone to blocking vessels.
Treatment is pain medication, oxygen therapy,
Diagnosed through CXR and MSK radiography
Genetic disease where the outer layer of the RBC is abnormal and so makes it a spherical shape.
This means it is prone to rupture
It causes Anaemia, Jaundice, and an enlarged spleen
Treatment is a blood transfusion, Folic acid substitutes and a spleenectomy
This is a deficiency in the number of platelets
This causes bleeding in the gums, bruising, nosebeed and petechiae (coloured spots on the skin.)
It is caused by either a decreased production of platelets or an increased destruction of platelets.
Genetic disorder of the coagulation pathway (common in males)
Symptoms include sponateous haemorrhage and bleeding into joints causing them to lock.
Treatmesnts include: Factor infusions and radiosynovectomy (removal of synovial membrane by radioisotope.
DIagnosis: U/S, MRI and X-Ray of joints.
Spasm within the vessel causing occlusion
Caused my raynaud's syndrome or as a complication of intervention
It causes skin to change colour, can give a cold, numb or tingling sensation
Treatments include time or vasodilators
It can be seen on ultrasound or on angiograms
This is inflammation of the vessel wall causing occlusion.
Caused by Direct injurt to vessel, Infections and as part of an immune response.
It causes fever, myalgia, Arthralgia, and malaise.
Immunosuppressive drugs are used to treat.
Angiography is use to visualise the vessels
An atheroma is a fattty deposit, Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease, where plaque builds up in the walls of medium and large arteries.
When in coronary arteries it is called coronary heart disease.
Caused by Hypercholesterolemia, Age, History, diabetes hypertension Smoking, Obesity
treatment includes Cholesterol and blood pressure meds, or an Angioplasty, bypass or Endarterctomy
Imaging will be CTA or Angiography (Cath lab)
Consequences of Occlusions
They restrict blood supply
Therefore a lack of oxygen and nutrients are getting to tissues - Ischaemia
When this continues the tissues die- Infarct
Occlusions can cause stroke (TIA, ischaemic)
Aneurysm- reduced nutrient absorption causing damage to vessel wall.
- Endothelial injury- Trauma/ Athersclerosis
- Blood flow- When the blood flow is slow (inactivity) Platlets accumulate and thrombus can form
- Hyper coagulability- Change in blood that causes it to clot more (cancer and it's treatments increase coagulability.
Causes, cancer, cenral venous catheters, pregnancy, trauma, varicose veins
- DVT- From of thrombus in deep veins
- Diagnosed through Wells score, D-Dimer blood test, and U/S
- EMbolus - Something that circulates in the blood stream til it gets stuck.
Imaging CTPA, CXR, V/Q scan, U/S
Permanent dilation of a blood vessel by at least 50 % the normal diameter.
Caused by, Athersclerosis, Genetics, infections, and trauma
Mostly in males over the age of 60
Symptoms include pain in abdo and back, or pulsatile abdominal swelling.
Small aneurysms are monitored by U/S
If they are over 5 cm then intervention is required, via EVAR (Endovascular aneurysm repair)
When blood enter the medial layer of the vessel wall through a tear in the intima. Blood flows through the media creating a blood-filled channel.
Can cause chest pain, or a tearing sensation and hypertension
Saccular, berry and fusiform.
Saccular is a dilation in a localised area forms a sac-like swelling. On one side of the vessel.
Berry-appear at the base of the brain where the major blood vessels meet
Fusiform- bulges or balloons out on all sides of the blood vessel
Treatments include: Microvascular clipping and embolisation
Structure abnormalities- Varicose veins
Enlarged veins that can be achy or painful.
RIsk factors, are age, pregnancy, lack of movement and obesity.
Treatments ar sclerotherapy and endovenous laser ablation
Diagnosed through U/S
Abnormal vessels lead to arteriovenous shunting.
No intervening capillary bed.
Can be either congential or acquired
found anywhere in the body.
Atrial septal defect
Common congenital pathology.
Free communication of blood between the two atria.
Causes Dyspnoea, drequent respiratory infections and palpitations,
Treatment includes surgical closure and cath lab procedures.
Tetralogy of fallout
4 structural abnormalities that occur together.
- Pulmonary Stenosis
- Ventricular septal defect
- Overriding aorta
- Right heart hypertrophy.
Can cause cyanosis (blue lips)
Treatment is surgery.
Heart valve disease
TAVI - Trans catheter Aortic valve implantation
Melody valve- Pulmonary