- The carboxylic acid functional group is -COOH. They are found naturally in many foods. Naming: the '-e' is replaced with '-oic acid'.
- They may be made by oxidation of primary alcohols.
- They readily form salts with many metals, alkalis, bases & carbonates.
- Esters are formed when carboxylic acids (or acid anhydrides) react with alcohols. A water molecule is also formed in the reaction.
- Esters of aliphatic alcohols have fruity smells. Fats & oils are esters of glycerol & long chain carboxylic acids.
- Esters are hydrolysed to form alcohols & carboxylic acids by warming the ester with an acid catalyst. Warming an ester with an alkali breaks it down to form an alcohol & a carboxylic acid salt.
- Esters are used as flavours & fragrances, as well as in the renewable fuel (bio diesel).
- The ester functional group is:
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