Carbohydrates are an energy source for organisms:
- Some are broken down to provide usable energy in plant & animal cells
- Some are used for storing energy in cells
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen ( carb-o-hydrate )
There are 3 main groups of carbohydrates:
Monosaccharides : known as the simple sugars, sweet
Examples: glucose, fructose, galactose
Formula : (CH₂O)n
- made up of 2 monosaccharides joined together through a condensation reaction.
- The link formed between the 2 monosaccharides is a covalent bond known as a glycosidic bond.
glucose + fructose = sucrose
glucose + galactose = lactose
glucose + glucose = maltose
- made up of many monosaccharide units joined by glycosidic bonds as a result of many condensation reactions.
- not sweet
- can form very compact molecules ideal for storing carbohydrate in cells
- when simple sugars are needed for cellular respiration, the glycosidic bonds can be broken to release monosaccharide units in a process called hydrolysis.
- not very soluble in water
Starch , Glycogen
Starch is made of 2 compounds: amylose and amylopectin
The End !!!!