Carbohydrates: AS Chemistry

monosaccharides , disaccharides , polysaccharides !!!

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  • Created by: Van
  • Created on: 30-10-11 15:49

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are an energy source for organisms:

  • Some are broken down to provide usable energy in plant & animal cells
  • Some are used for storing energy in cells

Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen ( carb-o-hydrate )

There are 3 main groups of carbohydrates:

1.) Monosaccharides

2.) Disaccharides

3.) Polysaccharides

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Monosaccharides

Monosaccharides : known as the simple sugars, sweet

Examples: glucose, fructose, galactose

Formula :  (CH₂O)n



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Disaccharides

Disaccharides :

  • made up of 2 monosaccharides joined together through a condensation reaction.
  • The link formed between the 2 monosaccharides is a covalent bond known as a glycosidic bond.
  • Sweet 

Examples: 

glucose + fructose = sucrose

glucose + galactose = lactose

glucose + glucose = maltose


Formula: (C₆H₁₀O₅)n


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Polysaccharides

polysaccharides :

  • made up of many monosaccharide units joined by glycosidic bonds as a result of many condensation reactions.
  • not sweet
  • can form very compact molecules ideal for storing carbohydrate in cells
  • when simple sugars are needed for cellular respiration, the glycosidic bonds can be broken to release monosaccharide units in a process called hydrolysis.
  • not very soluble in water 

Examples : 

Starch , Glycogen

Starch is made of 2 compounds: amylose and amylopectin 

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The End !!!!

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Comments

Sophie Darcy

This was just what I needed, awsome flash cards !!!! 

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