All carbohydrates are made up of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. The Carbon and Hydrogen are always in the ration 2:1 respectively.
- Glucose is the main respiratory substrate.
- Storage i.e. starch in plants, glycogen in animals.
- Cellulose for structure in plant walls.
- Chitin for structure in fungi cell walls and insect exoskeletons.
- Peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls.
Disaccharides and polysaccharides are joined together by the condensation of two or more monosaccharides, and produce a water molecule.
- Maltose: A-Glucose & A-Glucose
- Sucrose: A-Glucose & Fructose
- Lactose: B-Glucose & Galactose
Disacchardes become monosaccharides undergo hydrolysis.
Starch is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin, which are polymers of A-Glucose. Amylose is linear joined by 1,4 glycosdic bonds. Amylopectin have branches (1,6 glycosidic bonds). These can be used for quick releases of energy.
Glycogen has more 1,6 links so that more energy can be released more often.