Car theory revision

  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 08-09-18 11:53

Safety margins

Thinking distance + braking distance = stopping distance

20mph - 6m + 6m = 12 metres (40 feet)

30mph - 9m + 14m = 23 metres (75 feet)

40mph - 12m + 24m = 36 metres (118 feet)

50mph - 15m + 38m = 53 metres (175 feet)

60mph - 18m + 55m = 73 metres (240 feet)

70mph - 21m + 75m = 96 metres (315 feet)

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Safety margins

  • In good, dry conditions leave a two-second gap
  • In wet weather, leave a four-second gap
  • In icy weather, leave a 20-second gap
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Hazard awareness

Hazards can be...

STATIC - parked cars, junctions or roundabouts


MOVING - pedestrians, cyclists or drivers

YOU - If you aren't alert and fit to drive

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Hazard perception

The colours of the reflective studs on the motorway and their locations are:

RED - between the hard shoulder and the carriageway

WHITE - between lanes

AMBER - between the central reservation and the carriageway

GREEN - along slip road exits and entrances

BRIGHT GREEN / YELLOW - at roadworks and contraflow systems

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Road and traffic signs

  • Circular signs give orders
  • Blue circles give an instruction or show which sort of road user can use a route
  • Red rings or circles tell you what you mustn't do
  • Triangular signs give warnings
  • Rectangular signs give information
  • Signs with a brown background give tourist information
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Road markings

  • Short broken white lines mark the centre of the road
  • Longer broken white lines show that a hazard is ahead
  • White diagonal stripes or chevrons seperate lanes of traffic 

    You MUST NOT cross or straddle double white lines with a solid white line on your side of the road unless:

a) You're turning into a junction or entrance

b) You need to pass a stationary vehicle

c) You need to overtake a cyclist, horse or road maintenance vehicle if they're moving at 10mph or less

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Traffic lights

Traffic lights work in a sequence:

Red - stop and wait behind the line

Red and amber - stop and wait; don't pass or start until the green light shows

Green - go if the way is clear

Amber - stop unless you've already crossed the stop line or you're so close to it that pulling up might cause an incident

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