California v Philippines

hazard hotspot case study

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Background Information- Philippines

  • 7000 islands.
  • Lies in a belt of tropical cyclones and on a plate boundary (The dense
    oceanic Philippines is being subducted beneath the Eurasion Plate.)
  • Suffers from
    heavy rainfall to due to monsoon climate.Flooding leads to landslides, as the area is deforested.
  • 240 people per km2.High coastal population. E.g.Luzon province.
  • 91 million population.
  • $5000 per capita
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Background Information- California

  • 40 million people

  • Economy is 6th best in the world
    (Higher than France)

  • More than 70% of the people live within 50km of
    the San Andreas fault

  • 20% of LA residents live below the poverty line
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Volcanic Eruption- Philippines

Mt Pinatubo, June 1991

  • Biggest the world had seen for 50 years.
  • Tried to plan for it- made a video outlining
    risks of Pyroclastic flows.
  • 350 people died, 77 from lahas, some from
    disease in the evacuee camps.
  • 80,000 hectares of farmland buried in ash.
  • 500,000 farmers lost their livelihoods.
  • $710 million economic loss
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Volcanic Eruptiom- California

  • Not been an eruption in California since 1915-Lassen park
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Earthquake- Philippines

  • July 1990
  • 7.7 magnitude.
  • 1666 dead.
  • 3500 injured.
  • $300 million economic loss.
  • 100,000 homes destroyed.
  • Two million people suffered as a result.
  • Landslides.
  • Destroyed infrastructure including a dam
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Earthquake- Los Angeles

Los Angeles

  • 17th Jan 1994
  • 6.7 magnitude
  • San Fernando Valley, Northern LA
  • Thousands of aftershocks 4-5
  • 57 people died
  • 1500 seriously injured
  • 12500 buildings damaged (25% serious to
    moderate)
  • 9000 homes + businesses no electricity for days. 20,000 without gas.48500 people without water
  • .Damage to freeways- 30km traffic choked.
  • $500 million damage
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Landslide-Philippenes

Guinsaugon Landslide, Feb 2006

  • The mudslide covered 3km2 
  •  killed 1150 people.
  • Physical causes: 2000mm of rain fell in 10 days
    (In the dry season), La Nina probably caused this, a 2.6 mag earthquake struckand could of triggered it
  • Human causes: Deforestation unbinding the soil,replacement of natural forest by shallow rooted trees.
  • 1905-2007: 2604 people killed in landslides affected 310,000 people.
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Landslide- California

  • Earthquake induced.
  • Steep unstable hillsides above Los Angeles surround it like a bowl, winter rain storms destabilise the ground.
  • Geology-loosely consolidating sands and gravels and impermeable clays around Santa Monica.
  • Building on steep slopes = further hazard
    increase.
  • 2003-campsite disasters are outside LA.  Series of landslides kills 16.  Wildfires  removed vegetation = unstable
    slopes. 
  • The worst rainfall for 20 years increased the risk. 
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Flooding-Philippines

  • Common impact of typhoon rains.
  • Squatter settlements on riverbanks vulnerable.
  • Low-lying areas have inadequate drainage systems.
  • July 1972: central and southern Luzon, most of Manila was underwater.
  • 600 dead, 370,000 homeless, 250,000 hectares of rice damaged.
  • In 1995 a flash flood on Mindanao island resulted in $20 million of
    damage to infrastructure and agriculture.
  • Mountainous regions also susceptible, as well as
    low-lying floodplains.
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Flooding- California

  • Coastal floods link to storm surges-long beach recently  devastated
  • Flash floods (October-January)-encouraged by steep relief of drainage
    basins and deforestation example: Sierra Nevada and coastal range.
  • LA experiences flash floods every year-1995 was the worst.
  • 1995-Heaviest snowfalls due to climate change and the El Nino led to minor avalanches and huge surges in spring months due to melt water.
  • 1995-eight deaths-LA to San Francisco highway washed away
  • 38 countiesdesignated emergency areas.
  • Rivers have been heavily channelized will try toavoid flooding.
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Drought- Philippines

  • 1905-2007: there were six droughts and eight deaths.
  • Six million people affected.
  • April 1998 2.5 million affected
  • 1986-1987 was the worst drought which affected the whole country.
  • In 1989 there was a droughts where crops died. 
  • Major food shortages after the Pinatubo 1991 eruption.
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Drought- California

  • Caused by anticyclones = dry air = dry weather.
    Also caused by La Nina events.
  • Winds from the Arizona Desert = no moisture = no precipitation.
  • Overuse of water in naturally dry climate due to
    population pressure. 
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Comments

Sonia H

THANK YOU SO MUCH!!!

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