Rubbing in method=scones + rock buns,
Creaming method=fairy cakes + sponge,
Whisking method=Swiss rolls + Gateux,
Melting method=Flapjacks + Brownies,
Flour is used to:
Form the structure of the cake,
Set the shape of the cake (when heated protein/gluten sets),
For dextrinisation, starch into sugar, sugar caramelises, golden surface.
Types of starch: Wheat flour, corn flour, arrow root and bulking agent.
Fat is used to:
Add colour and flavour,
Hold air bubbles, creates texture,
Too much fat is bad for your long term health, by using low fat spread you only use half the amount of fat as butter, however they contain more water so cannot be used for baking.
Saturated fat examples: Butter, lard, suet and vegetable oils.
Unsaturated fat examples: Cooking oils. These are better for you.
Sugar is used to:
Sweeten and add flavour,
Holds air, when creamed,
When caramelised gives colour.
Types of sugar: Granulated, caster, icing, demerara and muscovado.
Function of sugar: Preserves, aerates, increase shelf-life, caramelisation, flavour, colour and stabilises.
We try to reduce sugar in recipes because it will lower calories, help diabetes and it is good marketing.
Eggs are used to:
Trap air when whisked,
Coagulate (Set) when heated,
Emulsify (Hold fat in and keep stable),
Add colour, flavour and nutritional value.
Aeration is when eggs trap air, when eggs are whisked the protein streches and incorperates air bubbles, when just egg whites are whisked they can hold up to seven times their volume, the heat created by whisking holds the foam to keep it stable. (For example: meringues and swiss rolls).
Coagulation is when eggs are heated and they changed from a liquid to a solid, for example, fried eggs, custard and quiches.
Emulsification is when water and oil are forced together, for example by an egg yolk in mayonaise.
Raising agent is used to:
Aerate the mixture, which increases the volume and giving it a light texture.
Faults and causes
Faults and causes in cake making:
Peaked cracked top, caused by oven being too hot, tin over filled, too high oven shelf, too stiff or too wet and over mixed batter.
Cake sinks, caused by too much sugar, too much raising agent, under cooked, wrong temperature or time and disturbed during cooking.
Sugary, speckled crust, caused by too much sugar, wrong type or sugar and insufficient creaming.
Heavy texture, caused by too much liquid, not enough raising agent, curdeled, wrong method used, not beaten enough and over beaten.
Coarse texture, caused by too much raising agent and not enough mixing.
Dry cake, caused by over cooking, not enough liquid and too much raising agent.
Fruit has sunk, caused by too much liquid, sugar or raising agent.