Water Pollution and Problems
- Many small streams and old irrigation canals around Cairo are filled with plastic bags full of solid waste and are used for sewage disposal
- 80% of the industrial waste is untreated and discharged into the Nile. This can be as much as 2.5 million litres a day. This effects local fishing and the tourism industry
- Its estimated that 23% of Cairo does not have access to a fresh water supply
- 25% of the population are not connected to the public sewage system
- 15% of sewage water is being treated properly, 60% is carried raw through open canals to the Mediterranean
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- Air pollution is created by two million cars and the 200,000 motorbikes
- Its predicted that half a million of Cairos residents will develop serious health problems which will lead to premature death
- In the industrail quarter, Shoubra al-Kheima, where many poor people live near their work places, 37% of residents suffer from lung problems
- The suns rays are blocked by smog on most polluted days which means the children suffer from vitamin D deficiency
- The lead concentration in the air from lead smelters in the industrial quarter lead to a loss of intelligence at an average of 4 IQ points
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- Noise pollution is created from the 2 million cars and 200,000 motorbikes
- Loudspeakers calling Muslims to prayer
- Noise of nightclubs on the River Nile. It is particularly bad in the Saraya Al Gezira district
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- Inhabitants of Cairo produce 10,000 tonnes of solid waste a day, only 60% of that is collected, the rest is left to rot in streets, canals, drains and neigbourhood dump sites.
- Large toxic stockpiles of waste, as much as 50,000 tonnes, from industry has accumulated in Helwan, Shoubra and Embaba.
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- Approximately 60% of Cairo's population live in shantay-type dwellings. The most famous is "The City of the Dead" or Arafa (cemetry). It is a 4 mile long cemetry in east Cairo where people live and work among their dead ancestors. It is estimated from 30,000 to 1 million people live there.
- The government has responded and tried to build cities on the edge of Cairo in the desert. Many Cairo residents wish to stay in the city where their jobs are. Many young professionals are not able to marry due to strong social rules that a couple may not wed until the man can provide a home.
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Exam Tips - Mark Scheme for 6 mark questions
- 1-2 marks A simple answer which has very little description. Could be about anywhere not linked to the case study
- 3-4 marks A basic answer with descriptive points or a specific point or possibly a weak explaination. 4 marks requires a specific point and some linked descriptive points and weak explaination
- 5-6 marks A clear answer with clear explaination or a specific point. 6 marks requires a range of specific points or a number of explainations or a specific point and an explaination
- 1-2 marks A basic answer which has simple descriptive statements
- 3-4 marks A clear answer with with an explaination or a specific point. 4 marks requires a range of specific points or a number of explainations or a specific point and explaination
- 5-6 marks An explicit answer with a range of specific points and explained points
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