C7 and all the topics


  • They are made up of chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms - they are a family of hydrocarbons
  • They only contain single covalent bonds
  • Alkane family contains molecules that look similar but they have different chain lengths due to the carbon atoms
  • All have the same formula:
    • CnH2n+2
  • First four are methane, ethane, propane and butane
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  • Alkanes burn to give carbon dioxide and water
    • alkane + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water
  • You must give a balanced symbol equation for the burning of an alkane
  • e.g. CH4 + 2O2 ---> 2H2O + CO2
  • Alkanes don't react with most chemicals
  • They don't react with aqueous reagents
  • The C-C and C-H bonds are non-reactive
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  • -OH functional group
  • General formula: CnH2n+1OH
  • First two are methanol CH3OH and ethanol C2H5OH
  • They have similar properties because of the -OH functional group

Alcohols, Alkanes and Water

  • Ethanol is soluble in water, alkanes are insoluble in water
  • Ethanol and water are both good solvents (lots of things dissolve in them)
  • Boiling point of ethanol is 78 C, water is 100 C, ethane -103 C
  • Ethanol is liquid at room temperature
    • Evaporates easily and gives out fumes (volatile)
  • Methane and ethane are also volatile, but are gases at room temperature
  • Water is liquid at room temperature but not volatile
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  • Alcohols are used as solvents and fuels and in manufacturing
  • They can dissolve lots of compounds that water can't e.g. hydrocarbons and oils
  • Makes ethanol and ethanol very useful solvents in industry
  • Methanol is used in industries as a starting point for manufacturing other organic chemicals
  • Ethanol used in perfumes and aftershave lotions
    • Can mix with both oils and water
  • Methylated spirit (meths) is ethanol with chemicals added to it
    • Used to clean paint brushes and as a fuel
  • Alcohols burn in air because they contain hydrocarbon chains
  • Pure ethanol is clean burning so it is sometimes mixed with petrol and used as fuel for cars to conserve crude oil
  • Alcohols react with sodium
  • sodium + ethanol ---> sodium ethoxide + hydrogen
  • Sodium metal reacts more vigorously with water - sometimes melting from heat
  • sodium + water ---> sodium hydroxide + hydrogen
  • Alkanes don't react with sodium at all
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Carboxylic Acids

  • Functional group -COOH
  • Functional group gives them similar properties
  • Their names end in '-anoic acid'
  • e.g. methanoic acid

  • They react with alkalis, carbonates, and reactive metals (just like other acids)
  • Salts formed end in '-anoate' e.g. methanoic turns to methanoate
  • React with metals to give a salt and hydrogen
  • React with alkalis to give a salt and water
  • React with carbonates to give a salt, water and carbon dioxide
  • They are weak acids, so they don't react as fast as strong acids
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Carboxylic Acids

  • They have strong smells and tastes e.g. sweaty socks and rancid butter
  • If wine or beer is left open, the ethanol is oxidised to ethanoic acid
  • Vinegar is dilute concentration of ethanoic acid

ethanol + oxygen ---> ethanoic acid + water

  • The strong smell and taste can sometimes be useful, like vinegar on chips
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Heather Wood


Quite helpful but it doesn't cover all of C7, just the first unit. Thanks for the cards :)

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