Test for Chloride ions
Add 2cm(cubed) dilute nitric acid followed by 2cm(cubed) silver nitrate.
If a white precipitate is formed, the compound is a Chloride ion.
Test for Carbonates
Add Limewater. If the solution goes cloudy then carbonate ions are present.
Add 5cm(cubed) of Hydrochloric acid. If bubbles of gas are given off, then carbonate ions are present.
Test for Nitrates
Add a little aluminium powder, a few drops of sodium hydroxide and warm.
If ammonia is formed, then the compound is a nitrate.
Test for Copper
Add a few drops of Sodium hydroxide to the compound.
If a blue precipitate is formed, then the compound is Copper.
Test for Sulfate
Add 2cm(cubed) dilute Hydrochloric acid followed by 2cm(cubed) barium chloride.
If the compound is a Sulfate, then a white precipitate will form.