The Water Cycle.
Evaporation ----- Condensation ----- Percipetation ----- Rivers ----- Oceans
Sun heats the water and it evaporates into the atmosphere. ----- It falls from the clouds as rain, snow or sleet. ----- It falls into rivers. ----- Rivers flow into the oceans.
1) Filtering - Removes solid material and algae.
2) Reacts with ozone - Remove algae and kills bacteria. (99%)
3) Passed through sand and gravel - Removes smaller impurities.
4) Filter beds containing 'adivated carbon'.
5) Chlorine added - remove the rest of the bacteria.
6) Ozone and most of chlorine removed chemically.
7) Water is stored in closed tanks.
Hard & Soft Water
Ions Observations In Water
Sodium Chloride Lots of bubbles, Clear, Soft Water
Calcium Chloride Lots of bubbles, Cloudy, Hard Water
Magnesium Chloride Some bubbles, Cloudy/Scummy, Hard Water
Potassium Chloride Lots of bubbles, Clear, Soft Water
Barium - Light Green
Calcium - Brick Red
Copper - Blue/Green
Lead - Blue/White
Potassium - Lilac
Sodium - Bright Orange
Magnesium - Bright Yellow
Testing For Carbonates
Zinc Carbonate - Black Soot - CO2 Present
Copper Carbonate - Yellow - CO2 Prensent
Potassium Carbonate - White - No CO2 Present
Sodium Carbonate - White - No CO2 Present
Carbon Dioxide = 0.88g
0.88g x 12 = 0.24g
0.24g = 0.24 = 0.02 moles
The Alkali Metals (Group 1 Reactivity)
Litium - Li - Energy Shells (2,1)
Sodium - Na - Energy Shells (2,8,1)
Potassium - K - Energy Shells (2,8,8,1)
Rubidium - Rb - Energy Shells (2,8,8,8,1)
Caesium - Cs - Energy Shells (2,8,8,8,8,1)
Francium - Fr - Energy Shells (2,8,8,8,8,8,1)
The further away the free electron is the easier it is for the electron to give away because the nucleus is not charged so therefore would be unable to keep them in place.
John Newlands and Dmitri Mendeleev
1) He spotted a pattern in the 50 discovered elements
2) Put them in the order of atomic mass ( Law of Octaves)
3) The table didn't work after calcium
4) He put highly reactive with unreactive elements.
1) Mendeleev created a table that is the basis of the modern one
2) He left gaps for undiscovered elements
3) He put them in order of atomic number not mass number.
Arrhenius and Bronsted and Lowry
1) Said that acids split up in water to form hydrogen ions and bases split up to make hydroxide ions.
1) Acids are proton donors
2) Bases are proton acceptors
25.0 = 0.025dm3 x 0.100 mol/dm3 = 0.00215 moles
moles of Na(OH) = 0.0025
22.5 = 0.0225
0.0025 = 0.1 mol/dm3
grams/100g of water
moles = mass - RAM
cm -------- dm
mass - Mr = moles
mass - moles = Mr
Mr x moles = mass
concerntration x volume = moles
moles - concerntration = volume
moles - volume = concerntration
Q = M C T
Energy = mass x specific heat x change in temp
one kilocalorie = 4.2 kilojoules