C3 GCSE Exam Revision

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The Water Cycle.

Simple

Evaporation ----- Condensation ----- Percipetation ----- Rivers ----- Oceans

Explained

Sun heats the water and it evaporates into the atmosphere. ----- It falls from the clouds as rain, snow or sleet. ----- It falls into rivers. ----- Rivers flow into the oceans.

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Purifying Water

1) Filtering - Removes solid material and algae.

2) Reacts with ozone - Remove algae and kills bacteria. (99%)

3) Passed through sand and gravel - Removes smaller impurities.

4) Filter beds containing 'adivated carbon'.

5) Chlorine added - remove the rest of the bacteria.

6) Ozone and most of chlorine removed chemically.

7) Water is stored in closed tanks.

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Hard & Soft Water

Ions                              Observations In Water

Sodium Chloride          Lots of bubbles, Clear, Soft Water

Calcium Chloride         Lots of bubbles, Cloudy, Hard Water

Magnesium Chloride    Some bubbles, Cloudy/Scummy, Hard Water

Potassium Chloride     Lots of bubbles, Clear, Soft Water

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Flame Tests

Barium  -  Light Green

Calcium  -  Brick Red

Copper  -  Blue/Green

Lead  -  Blue/White

Potassium  -  Lilac

Sodium  -  Bright Orange

Magnesium  -  Bright Yellow

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Testing For Carbonates

Zinc Carbonate  -  Black Soot  -  CO2 Present

Copper Carbonate  -  Yellow  -  CO2 Prensent

Potassium Carbonate  -   White  -  No CO2 Present

Sodium Carbonate  -  White  -  No CO2 Present

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Emperical Formula

Carbon Dioxide = 0.88g

0.88g x 12 = 0.24g

             44

0.24g = 0.24 = 0.02 moles

               12

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The Alkali Metals (Group 1 Reactivity)

Litium - Li - Energy Shells (2,1)

Sodium - Na - Energy Shells (2,8,1)

Potassium - K - Energy Shells (2,8,8,1)

Rubidium - Rb - Energy Shells (2,8,8,8,1)

Caesium - Cs - Energy Shells (2,8,8,8,8,1)

Francium - Fr - Energy Shells (2,8,8,8,8,8,1)

The further away the free electron is the easier it is for the electron to give away because the nucleus is not charged so therefore would be unable to keep them in place.

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John Newlands and Dmitri Mendeleev

1) He spotted a pattern in the 50 discovered elements

2) Put them in the order of atomic mass ( Law of Octaves)

3) The table didn't work after calcium

4) He put highly reactive with unreactive elements.

1) Mendeleev created a table that is the basis of the modern one

2) He left gaps for undiscovered elements

3) He put them in order of atomic number not mass number.

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Arrhenius and Bronsted and Lowry

1) Said that acids split up in water to form hydrogen ions and bases split up to make hydroxide ions.

1) Acids are proton donors

2) Bases are proton acceptors

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Solution Calculations

25.0   = 0.025dm3 x 0.100 mol/dm3 = 0.00215 moles

1000

moles of Na(OH) = 0.0025

22.5   = 0.0225

1000

0.0025     = 0.1 mol/dm3

0.0225

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Equations

grams/100g of water

moles = mass - RAM

cm   -------- dm

mass - Mr = moles

mass - moles = Mr

Mr x moles = mass

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Equations

concerntration x volume = moles

moles - concerntration = volume

moles - volume = concerntration

Q          =  M              C                          T

Energy = mass x specific heat x change in temp

                             capacity (4.2)

one kilocalorie = 4.2 kilojoules

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Comments

JULIE SAUNDERS

Check your spelling !!!!!

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