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  • Created by: Nat
  • Created on: 24-05-10 12:06

Acids And Bases

Donors and Acceptors

  • H+ ions form when acid is dissolved in water, making them proton donors
  • OH- ions formed when alkali dissolves in water, making them proton acceptors
  • This means when they combine they produce water, a neutral substance!!
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Acids and Bases


  • Strong acids and alkalis are fully ionised in water
  • Weak acids and alkalis are not
  • Their strength is determined by there pH, the conc. H ions in a solution
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Acids and Bases


  • Acid + Alkali is a neutralisation reaction
  • It also produces a salt
  • The precise volumes of acid and alkali needed can be measured with titrations
    • Measure known vol. of alkali into conical flask with pipette
    • Add indicator to flask
    • Put acid into burette. Record starting volume
    • Open tap to add acid to alkali drop by drop, swirling flask to mix the two
    • Keep adding until indicator changes


  • S Acid + S Alkali ---> Any
  • S Acid + W Alkali---> Phenolphthalein
  • W Acid + S Alkali ---> Methyl Orange
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Acids and Bases

Titrations Calculations

  • Step 1 - Write down all you know, e.g. vol. conc. moles
  • Step 2- Write down as much of the equation as you know
  • Step 3- Calculate no. of moles in known substance... Conc. x Vol.
    • Volume must be in dm3 (divide by 1000)
  • Step 4- Calculate no. of moles in unknown substance
    • Use ratio from earlier equation
  • Step 5- Work out conc. or vol. of unknown substance (ensure the use of dm3)
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Energy Calculations


  • Bendy Mexicans

Measuring energy change

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The simple steps for the titration calculations are so easy to follow thanks so much :D



Loving the bendy Mexicans :D



really helped, thanks :)

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