C2a Topic 3

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Covalent Bonds

Covalent Bonds

  • shared pair of electrons between two atoms.
  • Only Non-Metals can share electrons
  • Covalent bonding only shows the outer shell.

Examples - to learn!!

1) Hydrogen, H2                                        4) Oxygen, O2

2) Hydrogen Chloride, HCl                     5) Water, H2O

3) Methane, CH4                                       6) Carbon Dioxide, CO2


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Covalent Substances - Two Kinds

Simple Molecular - Covalent Substances

  • The atoms in these substances make very strong covalent bonds to form small molecules of two or more atoms.
  • By contrast, the forces of attraction of these molecules are very weak.
  • The result of these weak inter-molecular forces is that the melting and boiling points are very low.
  • Most molecular substances are gases or liquids at room temperature.
  • Don't conduct electricity - no ions.
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Covalent Substances - Two Kinds

Giant Molecular Covalent Substance

  • No charged ions
  • All atoms are bonded to each other by strong covalent bonds.
  • They have very high melting and boiling points.
  • Except for graphite - they don't conduct electricity - not even when molten.
  • Usually insoluble in water.
  • Main examples are - diamond and graphite, which are both made only from carbon atoms.
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