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Fractional Distillation

Used to seperate Crude Oil, a mixture of many hydro carbons.

Fractions with low boiling points exit at the top, Fractions with high boiling points exit at the bottom.


Cracking- converts long alkane molecules into smaller alkene or alkane molecules that are more useful e.g petrol

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Complete combustion- methane + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water... MORE ENERGY RELEASED

  CH4 + 202 = CO2 + 2H2O

 Incomplete combustion- fuel + oxygen = carbon monoxide + water TOXIC GAS RELEASED

 2CH4 + 3O2 = 2CO + 4H20

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A hydrocarbon is a compound of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms only.

Alkanes- Hydrocarbons which contain single covalent bonds only

Alkenes- Hydrocarbons which contain a double covalent bond between carbon atoms.

Addition polymerisation is the process in which many Alkene monomers react to make a polymer. (High pressure and a Catalyst)

The reaction causes the double bond to break and each carbon atom forms a new bond.

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Designer Polymers

Nylon - tough, lightweight and keeps rainwater and UV light out.

Gore Tex - allows water vapour to pass out so that sweat does not condense.

Plastics with weak intermolecular forces can easily be stretched as the polymer molecules can slide over eachother.

Plastics with strong intermolecular forces are rigid as they have cross linking bridges.

Developing new types that can be dissolved, and that are biodegradable.

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Denaturing- when protein molecules change shape permanently when they are cooked, it causes the texture to change.

Carboydrates also change texture, the starch swells and spread out which cause the cell walls to rupture and lose rigid structure.

Baking powder- sodium hydrogencarbonate = sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water

                                   2NaHCO3              =         Na2CO3      +       C02           + H20

Emulisifiers- Molecule that have a hydrophillic part, and a hydrophobic part.

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ESTERS - Alcohol + Acid = Ester + Water

- acid is added to alcohol and heated

- condenser cools down the gas and allows the reaction to continue

PERFUME- Must not react with water, Non toxic, Non irritable, Must evaporate easily, Insoluable in water

EVAPRATION- In order to evaporate particles need enough kinetic energy to overcome the forces of attraction to other molecules in the liquid. Perfumers have weak attractions so it is easy to overcome.

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Emulsion paints- Dry when the solvent evaporates (the water) and the oil forms a protective skin.

Oil paints- The oil and solvent are mixed together, the solvent evaporates and the oil oxidises and forms a protective skin.

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Thermachromic pigments- Change colour at different temperatures. (kettles, baby products, mugs)

Phosphorescent pigments - Absorb and store energy, and release it as light.  Alternative to radioactive paints.

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