C1.1 Fundamental Ideas of Chemistry

  • Created by: Cornetto
  • Created on: 26-05-15 21:28

Periodic Table

  • The periodic table is made up of about 100 elements.
  • An element is a substance made up of only one type of atom.
  • Atoms are the simplest particle substances can be broken down into.
  • On the periodic diagram the metals are on the left hand side and non-metals are on the right hand side of a dividing line.
  • The first group contains the alkali metals - most reactive metals. This group contains lithium, sodium, potassium, rubisium and caesium.
  • The transition metals are the most common metals.
  • Group 7 contains halogens like fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.
  • Group 0 contains noble gases like helium, neon, argon and krypton. They are very unreactive.
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Chemical Reactions

  • The three types of chemical reactions are ionic bonding, covalent bonding and metallic bonding.
  • Word reactions show what chemicals are reacted to get a product.
    • Sodium + Water ==> Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrogen
  • An arrow is used instead of an equals sign because the chemicals before and after the reaction are changed.
  • The chemicals on the left are reactants while the chemicals on the right are products.
  • Chemical symbols can also be used to show this reaction.
    • 2Na[s] + 2H₂O[l] ==> 2NaOH[aq] + H₂[g]
  • The state symbols tell us what state each chemical is in ('aq' stands for aqueous or dissolved in water).
  • Chemical reactions are balanced to ensure the same number of atoms is found on each side of the equation. This is because of the law of conservation of mass - atoms are neither created nor destroyed.
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