C11 polymers

Addition polymerisation

Plastics are made up of very large, covalently bonded molecules called polymers

The large polymer molecules are made when many small reactive molecules join together.

The reaction between Alkene monomers to form a polymer is called addition polymerisation

In addition polymers, the repeating unit has the same atoms as the monomer, because of the double carbon bond opens up in polymerisation, meaning no other molecule is formed in the reaction.

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Condensation polymerisation

Condensation polymerisation usually involves a small molecule released in the reaction, as the polymer forms

The monomers used to make the simplest condensation polymers are usually two different monomers, with two of the same functional groups on each monomer.

Polyesters are formed from the condensation polymerisation of a diol and a dicarboxyic acid, with water given of in the reaction.

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Natural polymers

Simple carbohydrates (monosaccharides) polymerise to make polymers such as a start he and cellulose.

Proteins are polymers made from different amino acids monomers.

Amino acids have an acidic and a basic functional group in the same molecule.

Amino acids react together during condensation polymerisation to make polypeptides and proteins made of long sequences of different monomers.

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DNA

Millions of nucleotides > DNA (a polynucleotide) + water

The nucleotides are based on the sugar deoxyribose, bonded to a phosphate group and a base. There are four possiable bases that bond to the sugar

T-A

G-C

A DNA molecule consists of two polymer strands (with sugars bonded to phosphate groups) intertwined into a double helix.

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