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Limestone (C1.2)

The limestone cycle goes:

  • CaCO3
  • Heat
  • CaO
  • Water
  • CaOH
  • More Water
  • CaOH(aq)  (Lime water)
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • CaCO3

Also, Limewater turns couldy when exposed to carbon dioxide thereore is the CO2 test.

  • Limestone + Clay = Cement
  • Cement + Sand + Water = Mortar
  • Cement + Sand + Aggregate + Water = Concrete
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Extracting Metals


If the metal is less reactive than carbon then it is extracted from ore in a reduction reaction. This is cheaper. It is reduction becasue it is removing the oxygen, purifying it. 

FeO + Ca ---> Fe + CaO


Electrolysis of Copper involves a Cathode(Negative) made from pure copper and an Anode (Made of impure copper). The impure copper gets purified and makes the Cathode bigger. The Andode gets smaller and there is anode sludge. However electrlysis is expensive.

Bioleaching and Phytomining and Scrap Iron

Bioleaching is where bacteria produce soltions containing copper compunds. In Phytomining plant roots absorb copper are burnt. Another option is to displace Copper with somthing more reactive like Scrap iron making FeO and Cu. Additionally, Scrap iron is V. Cheap.

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Other Metal Stuff

Aluminium and Titanium resist corrosion and have low densities but can't be reduced therfore cost alot to produce. Titanium is very stong and is therefore used in planes. 

Aluminium must be extracted through electrolysis 

Titanium could be reduced by carbon but it reacts with it ruining it. It instead has a long and expensive extraction process involving argon.

Blast Furnace

Iron Oxide is reduced (so oxygen removed) at high tempretures in a blast furnace using Carbon called Coke. The iron produced is 96% pure and brittle, but pure iron is too soft therefore it is used to make alloys.

Most iron is used to produce steel becuase it is an alloy and therfore stronger and more versitile.

Alloys are stronger because they are made of muiltiple types of metals which have different sized atoms which make it harder for the atoms to slide over each other.

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Crude Oil and Burning

Fractional Distillation

Crude oil is vapourised at 450 degrees celsius as it enters the column. Inside the collum there are lots of trays with holes for gas to pass through. The vapours move up the column, cooling down as they go. The hydrocarbons condense as they reach the tray that is at eht same tempreture as their boiling point. The longer, more viscous hybrocarbons condense lower down whilst the shorter, runnier hydrocarbons condense near the top. Diesel is near the bottom, Petrol is nearer the top.


Incomplete combustion happens in limited air supply, and may produce Carbon Monoxide and Solid Particulates.

Sulphur compounds in fuel burn to make Sulphur Dioxide.

In high tempretures Oxides of Nitrogen form.

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Alkanes and Alkenes

Alkanes- Cn + H2n+2

Alkenes- Cn + H2n

  • Alkanes are saturated. Alkenes are unsaturated and turn bromide water from orange to colourless. 
  • Cracking happens either:
    • Heating a mixture of hydrocarbon vapours and steam at a high tempreture
    • passing hydrocarbon vapours over a hot catalyst.
  • Polymers are made by Polymerisation- breaking an alkene's double bond and joining the monemers together. Examples are shape memory polymers used in stitching wounds.


Produce either by

1. Hydration of Ethene: Ethene(obtained by cracking) reacts with steam and high temp w/ catalyst.

2. Fermentation of Sugar: Yeast converts Sugar into Ethanol and CO2

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Organic Oils

Extracting Vegtable Oils:

  • Crushing, Pressing and Removing Water & Impurites
  • Distillation of Plant material mixed with water producing an Oil and Water mixture.

Hydrophilic Head

Hydrophobic Tail


The hydrophobic tail goes into the oil. Lots of emulsifier molecules per droplet. Because the tail is in the oil, the oil droplet gets sorounded by hydrophlic parts and therefore water. 

  • Emulsifiers improve the texture of foods, making them tastier
  • Hydrogenation- vegtable oil heated at 60 deegres with hydrogen over a nickle catalyst = butter

Products made from vegtable oils look healthy but aren't and can, therefore, make people fat.

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Inner core; Outer core; Mantle; Crust; Atomsphere (Most resources come from the crust).

The crust and upper mantle's techtonic plates arare split into different techtonic plates and they're constantly moving due to convection currents.Wegener thought up the idea of continental drift.

  • Earth formed 4.5 billion years ago and it's atmosphere was formed by volcanos spewing out CO2 and Water Vapour and Ammonia.
  • The Earth cooled and the Water Vapour condensed to form oceans. Therefore the Early earth's atmosphere was mainly CO2 and Nitrogen (and some water vapours). There are theories that Ammonia and Methane were also present.
  • in the next 2 billion years plants and algae evolved and began to photosynthesis, releasing Oxygen and removing CO2
  • As more plants grew, so did the level of CO2 lower and O2 rise.
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Earth 2

How did life start?

One theory states that the compounds needed came from reactions involving hydrcarbons and ammonia with lightning providing energy - this is unproven, but tested in the Miller-Urey Experiment.

The Miller-Urey Experiment & Primordial Soup

They put a mixture of water, ammonia, methane and hydrogen then simulated lightning and the solution was left for a few weeks. They later found ammino acids!                                             Another theory states that organic molecules formed a primordial soup and that the amino acids in that mixture combined ro make protiens and life began.


Most CO2 from the early earth became trapped in sedimentry rocks. About 80% of the atmosphere of today is nitrogen, 20% is O2. The main gases of the air can be seperatedby fractional distillation at -200 degrees.

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The Carbon Dioxide Cycle

  • Photosynthesis (The part that removes CO2 from the atmosphere but too much CO2 released to counteract by photosynthesis)
    • Also the CO2 taken by photosynthesis is used to make Cellulous
  • Respiration( Green plants, Animals and Microbes respire releasing CO2 into the atmos)
  • Combustion (Fossil fuels (locked up CO2) and trees are combusted releasing CO2)
  • Death (The bit before decay. This happens to green plants and animals)
  • Decay (decomposers start the decay proccess and then do the afore mentioned stuff)
  • Eating (Green plants containing CO2 eaten by animals)
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The Carbon Dioxide Cycle


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