Business Objectives

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Strategic management

Define strategy

Strategy is a plan of action by which an organisation aims to achieve its objectives

Define strategic management

Is the process of identifying a plan of action to enable the organisation to meet its objectives. It involves analysing the external and internal environment, setting objectives, deciding between alternative strategies, implementation, monirorting performance and manging change

Stages in developing a typical strategy

Mission --> Aim --> Objectives --> Strategies --> Tactics

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Mission

Define Mission

Is the overall purpose of the organisation

Define mission statement

A mission statement sets out the purposes and values of the organisation, providing a focal point for communication and planning

Give 2 factors that influence the content of a mission statement

  • Business culture
  • Attitude and ethics of dominant stakeholders
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Aims and Objectives

Define Aim

An aim is the prime business objective e.g survival, profit or growth

Define Objectives

An objective is a specific target an organisation sets itself to achieve through its activity (measurable and timed)

List 3 purposes of objectives

  • Motivational
  • Provides an organisational framework
  • Measure performance and controlling and coordinating individual staff and departments

Explain smart objectives

Specific (clear statement), Measurable ( number value), Agreed ( attainable target) , Realistic (achievable) and Timed (within a given time period)

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Aims and Objectives

State and explain the 7 main types of objectives

  • Corporate: whole business targets
  • Departmental: targets for each functional area
  • Staff: individual targets needed to meet team and deaprtmental objectives
  • Stakeholder: the aim of any group with an interest in an organisations performance
  • Strategic: long term targets set by senior managers
  • Tactical: short-term targets set by junior managers to deliver strategic objectives
  • SMART: specific, measurable, agreed, realistic and timed targets
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Strategy and tactics

Define tactics

Tactics are short-term day-to-day detailed activties to achieve a strategy

Distinguish between strategy and tactics

A strategy is a long-term action plan made by senior managers and affecting the whole organisation. Tactical decisions are taken by junior managers and affect day-to-day part of the organisation 

List 7 factors influencing strategy

  • Priorities of dominant stakeholders
  • Business culture 
  • Mission, aim and corporate objectives of the organisation
  • Maturity of the business 
  • External environment (competitors)
  • Internal environment (finances)
  • Risk and reward (do potential rewards justfy risk)
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Corporate planning

Define Corporate Objectives

Specific targets the entire organisation aims to achieve through the combined activity of staff and departments

How can mangement by objectives (MBO) aid strategic management?

Corporate objectives are cascaded down the organisation, driving department and behavioural objectives. Each functional area, sets deaprtment objectives to help deliver corporate objectives. 

Give a disadvantage of MBO

Staff and departments may prioritise ther own objectives, ignoring implications for overall corporate objectives (conflicting objectives)

List 3 strategies to overcome the limitations of MBO

  • Selecting individual objectives to ensure they reinforce corporate objectives
  • Link bonuses to corporate success as well as individual performance
  • Implement a communications strategy to keep everyone informed
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Planning

What is planning?

Planning is the management process of establishing objectives and selecting strategies and tactics required to achieve them. Planning prepares a course of action to achieve stated objectives given the internal resources of the business and its external environment

List 6 stages in a typical business plan

  • Mission: why are we here?
  • Aims and objectives: where are we going?
  • Situational analysis: where are we now?
  • Strategy and tactics: how do we get there?
  • Monitoring: are we on course?
  • Evaluation: did we get there?

Define external environment

The circumstances in which the organisation operates (state of the economy, legal constraints and social trends beyond the contorl of the business)

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Planning

Define internal environment

The resources and capabilities of an organisation

What is PEST analysis?

  • Political factors 
  • Economic factors
  • Social factors
  • Technological factors

What is the aim of a PEST analysis?

Identifies and assesses the likel yimpact of external factors beyond the control of the firm which may constrain its business activities

Define SWOT analysis

An asssessment of the firms current internal operationall strengths, weaknesses and external opportunities and threats

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Planning

List 8 areas of potential strenghts and weaknesses

  • Leadership, management and culture
  • Staff skills, attitude, experience and motivation
  • Products: range, brand image, quality and life cycle stage
  • Supply chain: access to resources, suppliers and distribution network
  • Economices of scale and productivity
  • Financial resources
  • Technology: research and development, patents and copyright
  • Capital: equipment and premises

List 3 examples of opportunities

  • Economic upturn
  • Opening up of overseas
  • Market deregulation

List 2 threats

  • Economic downturn / entry of a highly competitive rival into the market
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Stakeholder objectives

Define stakeholders

Any group with an interest in an organisation's performance

List the 9 typical stakeholders and their objectives

  • Owners; profit and capital gain from increasing share price
  • Managers: high salaries and benefits from job satisfaction
  • Employees: high wages, long holidays and good working conditions
  • Customers: low priced, good quality products
  • Suppliers: paid on time and repeat business
  • Creditors: loan paid back on time, with interest
  • Community: jobs and no harmful spillover effects
  • Government: employment and a source of taxes to pay for public services
  • Competitors; maintain a price and quality advantage over its rival

Identify shareholder objectives

Maximise shareholder value e.g rising dividends and share prices

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Stakeholder objectives

List 3 stakholder conflicts

  • Rise in wages for employees, increases costs and reduces profit for owners
  • A price rise may increase profits but disappoint customers
  • Delaying the payment of bills, improves cash flow but loses goodwill of suppliers

Define shareholder value

The financial benefits, shareholders gain from holding shares in a company: dividends and capital gains from share price increases

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Risk and Reward

Explain the link between risk and reward

Profit is the reward for risk-taking. Low risks offer low profits

Why does decision makiing involve risk and uncertainty?

Decisions are taken on the basis of available data and assumptions about the future. 

How can risk and uncertainty be reduced?

Research and planning can reduce risk. Decision makers need to wiegh up the benefits and their probability with costs. 

How does the type of product affect the risk culture of a business?

Firms operating in high-tech industries dominated by research and development, take risks by launching new products or fail. 

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