Eight Fold Path.
Right Action- not acting in a way to harm others or yourself - good kamma and helps follow the 5 precepts.
Right Speech - not speak in ways to hurt others e.g lies - good kamma and helps follow the 5 precepts.
Right Livelihood - only get a job that doesn't harm others e.g not a butcher - good kamma.
Right Effort - make an effort to put aside negative thoughts and replace with good ones - complete other aspects of the path and meditation would be impossible.
Right Mindfulness - being mindful and award of yourself and everything around you - help Buddhists understand how their actions effect others.
Right Concentration - needed for meditation --> calm and gain insight - hopefully lead to enlightenment.
Eight Fold Path.
Right View - understanding what life really is and therefore understanding Dhamma - understand Dhamma and increase chances of enlightenment.
Right Intention - motivation behind your actions - underpins rest of path and without it = no kamma.
Four Noble Truths.
1. Dukkha (suffering) part of everyday life:
- Problems we need to overcome.
- Important because you need to understand to be able to do something about it.
2. Cause of Dukkha is Tanha (craving):
- Craving causes suffering because we are becer satistfied with what we have.
- Important because once you know the cause of suffering, you can try and stop it.
3. Way to overcome Dukkha is to overcome Tanha:
- We need to overcome Tanha to stop Dukkha.
- Finding happiness inside ourselves rather than craving.
- Important because it tells us how to overcome the problem.
4. Way to overcome Tanha is taking the Middle Way:
- Take the middle way between too much and too little.
- Important because it gives strategies to overcome craving and therefore suffering.
The 5 Khandhas.
Form: the physical body e.g hand.
Sensations: senses through which we experience outside world.
Perception: awareness of imformation out senses give us.
Mental Impulses: reaction to the infroamtion we take in.
Consciousness: thoughs that make us aware we exist.
- Help understand that we have no self (anatta).
- Understanding this will help a Buddhist crave less as they have noone to crave for.
- Help Buddhist reach Nibanna as craving less = suffer less.
- Accepting 5 Khandas, you are following Dhamma and this better chance of enlightenment.
3 Marks of Existence.
Anicca; all things are impermanent, everything changes.
Understanding that everything changes, we will not become attatched--> reduce craving and suffering.
Anatta; we have no permanent self because we are always changing.
By understanding anatta we will crave less as we have no one to crave for.
Dukkha; suffering and unsatisfactory nature of life.
Important to accept suffering so we can do something about it.
- Point at which all craving ceases to exist.
- It occurs at enlightenment.
- Those who achieve will cary on living but will no longer suffer.
- State of peace and happubess once craving has ceased.
- Only by living middle way will craving be stopped and Nibanna reached.
The Wheel of Life.
REPRESENTS THE SAMSARA, THE CONTINUAL ROUND OF BIRTH, DEATH, REBIRTH.
Gods: represents effect of receiving good kamma from positive causes.
Asuras: represent anger, hatred and envy towards other people.
Animals: represents basic human instinct. Food, sex and matrial comfort.
Hell: extreme suffering. Result of negative kamma.
Pretas: Hugry ghosts--> human selfishness, never have enough.
Humanity: being able to make choices and understand right and wrong.
Wheel of Life.
- There are the three poisons: a pig, a snake and a cockerel.
- They represent stupidity, hatred and greed.
- Buddhists see these as the starting point of all human problems.
The Dhammapada is a collection of short sayings- all teachings of the Buddha.
- 26 Chapters - 423 Verses
"Hatred does nont stop hatredl only love stops it. This is an ancient law"
"3 Baskets" --> 3 collections of Buddhist texts.
- Teachings of the Buddha.
- Dhammapada is part of the suttas.
- Rules of the monastic sangha.
- Must stick to rules to gain good kamma = better rebirth.
- The interpretations of the teachings.
- For example, each khanda is divided up. There are 28 different forms etc..