Levels of hierarchy - The number of layers of authority within an organisation.
Span or control - The subordinates reporting directly to a manager.
Centralisation - Places decision-making power firmly in the hands of senior personnel (often at head office).
Decentralisation - Gives decision-making powers to those at lower levels in the organisation and to employees in branch offices and other locations.
Delayering - The removal of one or more layers of hierarchy from the organisational structure.
Power and authority
Power - When one person can get another person to do something that otherwise they would not want to do.
Authority - A special form of power, in the sense that is gives people the right to give commands which others accept as legitimate.
Models of motivation in practice
Empowerment - The process of allowing subordinates to have greater coontrol over their working lives by, for example: letting them make many of their own decisions.
Delegation - The passing down of authority to a junior employee for a particular task. This is often limited to specific tasks and activities; in contrast, empowerment is a more general philosophy of passing down authority and control.
Job enrichment - The process of designing jbs containing tasks of varying complexity that allow employees to use their abilities to a greater extent.
Job enlargement - Extends the range of duties associated with a particular job.