- To see whther crisis support protects against onset depression even if their is low self esteem and a lack of general support
- To see if a lack of support and low self esteem were vulnerability factors in depression
- To see if the support of a husband, partner close relationship reduces the risk of depression (only women took part)
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- Women with husbands in a manual occupation with at least 1 child under 18 and were aged between 18-50 were recruited through their GP
- 435 women were chosen who fitted the requirements and 395 were involved in the first part of the study.
- At first contact measures of self esteem, personal ties and psychriatric histories were taken
- 12 months later they were checked for any onset psychriatric disorder over that period and measures of social support and life event stress were also taken
- Interviews were used to gather the data and was carried out bu experienced interviewers.
- Some women were interviewed intensively to check for reliability
- There was inter-rater reliabilty
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- In all 353 women agreed to the follow up interview (89% of the original sample)
- There were 50 cases of depression at first contact and these women were excluded.
- therefore 303 were interviewed to see if they had developed depression over the 12 months. About half of them (150) had experienced a severe event or major difficulty and 32 women had onset depression.
- Of those 32 women , 91% had experienced a severe life event in the 6 months prior to the on set de[ression (involving loss, failure or disappointment)
- Self esteem was looked at as well as a provoking agent (severe life event), 33% of those with a negative eveualtion of themselves developed depression in a response to a provoking agent (severe life event)
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- Compared to 13 % who developed depression in a response to a provoking agent but did not have a negative evealuation of self
- Suggesting that those with low self esteem are more likely to develop depression when faced with a provoking agent than those with high self esteem.
- With regard to social support , 94% of those women who had core crisis support said that it was helpful.
- Of those women who felt let down with regard to support 42% (14 out 33) developed depression. Of those without support either at first contact or later , 44% developed depression.
- Suggesting that social support is an important factor in whether someone develops depression or not.
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- That those who are married or had a close tie were liekly to develop depression (unless they confided in their husband and felt let down)
- Low self esteem is implicated in the onset of depression after a provoking agent. Self esteem in itself might be linked to whether a person has social support.
- A povoking agent seems to be becessary for the onset off depression in most cases
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- The interviews gave the required deph and deatil needed for analysis of complex issues
- There was inter-rater reliability which strengthens findings.
- Interviewing tends to gather valid data given the depth and deatl, and trained interviewers using semi structed interviews should be able to explore in the necessary depth
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Evualtion - Weaknesses
- Qualitive data was reduced to quantative data to give percentages., which means some of the information could have been lost- such as the role of the husband.
- This was a study of working class women with one child under 18 at home and in a specific age range, so generalising it to all women might not be apporiate
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