Britain Essay 5

  • Created by: emms1903
  • Created on: 15-01-20 16:21


Beveridge Report published in 1942 to examine existing social welfare schemes, also recommended new social welfare schemes to cover every individual 'from cradle to the grave'.

As a result of Beveridge Report the Wartime Coalition introduced the Education Act 1944 introducing three stages of school, raised leaving age to 15, made attendance compulsary and provided school meals and milk. 

Annouced the Family Allowances Act 1945 which gave a family 5 shillings a week for all children and gave legal entitlements to the wife.

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Want (poverty)

The National Insurance Act was introduced in 1946 and provided benefits for widow's, unemployed workers, sick people and pregnant women. Stopped people falling into poverty when faced with problems and unable to earn money and people finally getting help from the government. Sickness benefits only available to people that had already made 156 weekly contributions so many didn't receive the benefits.

In 1948 National Assistance Act introduced as a safety net for those not covered by National Insurance, by 1949 2 million people claiming NA. Everyone was covered and getting help from government to avoid poverty. Was needs tested, anyone that applied went through examination of persons pyhsical or social state to determine whether they were eligible so many did not want to apply.

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Squalor (housing)

Between 1945-1948 Labour built 157,000 houses for the working class. Gave many housing after housing being destroyed from WW2, government stopped them from being homeless. Labour didn't build as many houses as Tories did in the 1950s.

Between 1945 and 1949, there were 300,000 council houses built after given priority use of scarce building materials. Government prioritising council housing over private home, poorer citizens felt more valued and important. Even more of the poor homeless in 1951 than in 1931 showing they didn't rehouse everyone.

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Disease (health)

In 1946, Minister of Health Bevan introduced the National Health Service Act which gives everyone in Britain free medical treatment for the first time. Even the poorest in society could go to doctors and get cures from diseases without falling into poverty. Many doctors didn't want to give up their private practices and earn less money for more work so there were not many doctors willingly working.

Free prescriptions were provided by the NHS and 187 million prescriptions were issued in the first year. People could be diagnosed and then treated even if they had no money. NHS couldn't afford  to give free prescriptions (£140 million budgeted and costed £358 million) and in 1951 prescription charges were introduced and people couldn't afford to get treatment. 

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Idleness (unemployment)

Labour government nationalised 20% of industries including railways, mines, gas and electricity which meant that government was more involved with increasing large industries. Employees had more securtiy in their jobs from industries going bankrupt when government were in control. 

After the war unemployment levels reached full employment and Labour maintained unemployment at 2.5% which was the lowest ever. Gained Labour popularity for reaching the goal and poverty levels would be lower if unemployment levels were down giving the public better lives.

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Ignorance (education)

The 11+ exam determined whether pupils would go to grammar school, technical school or secondary school. Created a larger division between children from wealthier families and those from poorer families or working class as wealthier parents could pay for tutors, put them through private education or pay for them to go to school so had more opportunities. 

As part of the 1944 Education Act pupils given school meals and milk. Nourished children and helped them focus to do better at school, children may be from poorer families that struggle to feed them so they can get one meal. Some children relied on meals from school and went hungry during school holidays and not all schools provided the meals and milk due to the extra cost.

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