breakthroughs, 1750-1900


jenner and the vaccination (card 1)

since the 1970s doctors were inoculating people against smallpox by infecting them with a mild version of the disease.

the milder version could still kill

in 1796, jenner inoculated several people with pus from cowpox blisters- cow pox is not deadly.

and found they developed immunity to smallpox

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jenner and the vaccination (card 2)

in 1798, the royal society refused to publish jenner's work so he paid to print pamphlets

in 1802, the Jennerian society was set up to promote vaccinations

in 1804, over 12,000 people were vacinated

in 1840, the government started paying for vaccinations

in 1853, the government made vacinations compulsary

in 1979, the world health organisation announced smallpox had been wiped out

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opposition to jenner

he was opposed because,

people thought it was unethical, giving humans an animal disease

it interferred with god's plan

doctor's lost money when the government made vaccinations free

some doctor's didn't vaccinate people correctly, so it didn't work

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jenner's importance

jenner was not very important.

yes, his work proved  that scientific methods lead to a disease being wiped out, and saved millions of lives. however,

he didn't know why it worked

the link between smallpox and cowpox was unique

other diseases were still killing people

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germ theory

in 1861 louis pasteur published his germ theory, explaining that microbes in the air caused decay

robert koch, read pasteur's work, and linked bacteria to disease.

he identified the specific microbe that causes anthrax in sheep, and the microbes causing TB and cholera.

he discovered that chemical dyes stained bacteria

in 1879, pasteur's team of scientists discovered that a weakened version of a disease-causing microbe could be used as a vaccine

creating immunity to that disease

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pasteur and koch's importance

their work meant the true cause of certain diseases has been found.

these techniques, could identify other microbes and then develop vaccines to prevent them.

it shows the importance of scientists working in research teams

publishing scientific journals meant that their research teams could uses eachother's findings. however

  • it took time, meaning prevention was not immediate
  • causes of diseases were still unknown- genetic diseases
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