jenner and the vaccination (card 1)
since the 1970s doctors were inoculating people against smallpox by infecting them with a mild version of the disease.
the milder version could still kill
in 1796, jenner inoculated several people with pus from cowpox blisters- cow pox is not deadly.
and found they developed immunity to smallpox
jenner and the vaccination (card 2)
in 1798, the royal society refused to publish jenner's work so he paid to print pamphlets
in 1802, the Jennerian society was set up to promote vaccinations
in 1804, over 12,000 people were vacinated
in 1840, the government started paying for vaccinations
in 1853, the government made vacinations compulsary
in 1979, the world health organisation announced smallpox had been wiped out
opposition to jenner
he was opposed because,
people thought it was unethical, giving humans an animal disease
it interferred with god's plan
doctor's lost money when the government made vaccinations free
some doctor's didn't vaccinate people correctly, so it didn't work
jenner was not very important.
yes, his work proved that scientific methods lead to a disease being wiped out, and saved millions of lives. however,
he didn't know why it worked
the link between smallpox and cowpox was unique
other diseases were still killing people
in 1861 louis pasteur published his germ theory, explaining that microbes in the air caused decay
robert koch, read pasteur's work, and linked bacteria to disease.
he identified the specific microbe that causes anthrax in sheep, and the microbes causing TB and cholera.
he discovered that chemical dyes stained bacteria
in 1879, pasteur's team of scientists discovered that a weakened version of a disease-causing microbe could be used as a vaccine
creating immunity to that disease
pasteur and koch's importance
their work meant the true cause of certain diseases has been found.
these techniques, could identify other microbes and then develop vaccines to prevent them.
it shows the importance of scientists working in research teams
publishing scientific journals meant that their research teams could uses eachother's findings. however
- it took time, meaning prevention was not immediate
- causes of diseases were still unknown- genetic diseases