Figure P3- Energy consumption (2006)
Figure P3 could be drawn in a...
- The numbers are already in percentages so you multiply the values by 3.6 to find out how many degrees each sector will be. (eg.)
- It is easy and simple to construct, draw a circle and using a protracter draw the degrees of each angle/sector.
- A key is used to identify each energy type.
- Easy to compare and contrast each type.
- Easy to interpret and make comparasions.
- In a pie chart its easy to see the proportion of each energy type, rather than a bar chart.
- Draw one with key.
- Visually simple to understand.
- Most of Brazils energy consumption is from oil, nearly half
- 36% is from HEP
- The least type is from renewables such as solar and wind
- However NOW..... oil is still highest but decreased by 10%
- Hep has also decreased, however other renewables increased by 20%, due to understanding and development into other energy supplies such as wind and solar
- 20% of Brazils energy consumption
- Most likely location:North east and South east
- have highland and coastal so produce contant winds, giving the area constand supply
- Clean, renewable, sustainable energy
- Least costly of all renewables
- Offers a stable, long term price for power production
- can supply on large scale
- Land surrounding the farms can be used for farming, which supports the economy of remote areas
- Smaller scale than HEP so less enviromental impact
- Steady winds, 11-13mph
- Adds to Brazils energy mix making it more enviromentally friendly
- Brazil has.... of coastline with great wind energy potentiol
- Brazil has a constant wind circulation system at an appropriate intensity for wind generation
- Brazil has highland areas -ideal locations
- Noise pollution
- Large and unsightly
- The location would be on highland or in the North which means the energy would have be transported to the cities
- Wind power isnt stored, and not alll currents can be harnessed
- Good wind sites are in remote locations, away from towns to investment is required to supply energy
- Need certain wind speeds
- Can disrupt wildlife, esp birds
- In times of low wind, back up energy is needed from other sources
- Needs goverment backing
- Often located in rural areas, yet urban areas needs the energy
- Due to its smaller scale, it cant compete with sources such as HEP
- Renewable, sustainable source
- No pollution
- Require little maintanance
- Brazil has a sunny climate so good solar potentiol
- Brazil consumes alot of energy and many consumers like that solar energy is ecofriendly and renewable, saving money in the long term
- Figure P7 shows that Brazil has a very warm climate all year round so great potential for solar
- Initial cost is high
- Solar energy can't be created at night but can be collected in the day and stored to use later
- To provide large scale amounts of energy, hude areas of panels are needed
- However due to Brazil's low air pressure it is often cloudy therefore reducing amount of solar radiation
Figure P5- Brazils gas production and consumption
- The graph shows that between 1998 and 1998 gas production and consumption increased at the same level and in 10 years increased by 100%.
- Between 1988 and 2008 production began to increase at a higher rate than consumption, 400% since 1988.
- Changes to production and consumption of gas has implications in the future.
- Before anything can happen, gas requires alot of infrastructure and upfront investment.
- It is at a high selling price which is bad for Brazil's economy.
- Demand for natural gas is rising in Brazil due to rising oil prices, and an increase of the use of 'flex-cars' in Brazil using gas as an alternative fuel.
- Brazil Imports natural gas from Bolivia and Trinidad&Tobago.
- As production increases, so does consumption, until 1988 when Brazils production and consumption are the same, 100billioncubicfeet.
- Between 1988 and 1998 they both increase steadily at a similar rate and by 1998 there has been an 100% increase.
- However consumption begins to accelerate above production meaning that Brazil is using more gas than it is producing.
- In 2008 consumption increased by over 400% and is almost double production.
Brazil-oil consumption-Figure P4
- Brazil has 12.6barrels of oil reserves located of the country;s south east coast.
- Because of rising oil production and slow growth in consumption it is expected Brazilw ill become a net oil exporter in 2009.
- This prediction is true and is continued to export oil in 2010 and 2011.
- It is predicted Brazil's oil consumption will be the same as production in 2012, but will continue to export in 2013.
- Is the cleanest burning fossil fuel
- Brazil has a large reserves of oil so no need to import from other countries
- Can export oil from its reserves to increase revenue and therefore development and quality of life
- Wars over who owns oil
- transport is dangerous-oil spills -enviromental and social impacts
- high oil prices
- Is difficult to access and therefore costly
- Not sustainable/renewable-will run out
- doesnt create a good energy mix
- global warming
- demand for oil has decreased as developed countries want to become more sustainable
- Brazil and US account for 90% of the worlds ethanol production
- Made from femented plants/crops containing starch/sugar, they are ground up and the sugar is dissolved from the material, microbes feed on the sugar producing ethanol which is then purified to increase concentration.
- Becoming more in demand as an alternative energy
- Is a renewable source
- Cheaper than normal fuel
- ethanol burns cleaner than gasoline so less toxic fumes and pollution
- Doesnt contribrute to greenhouse gases
- Provides employment, infrastucture, leading to development in the country
- alternative to fossil fuels, oil
- tax benefit- flexfuel tax credit which replaced the clean fuel burning deduction, reducing the tax payyers tax obligation
- crops used to produce ethanol cant be used again so could lead to higher animal food prices
- Engine damage-ethanol causes corrosion&damage to engines as it absorbs dirt easily
- Not many petrol stations sell flex-fuel, trouble buying it for consumer
Figure P6-Brazil's electricity by generation
Figure P6 could be displayed in a ...
- You can see change over time
- Easily compare and contrast the different kinds of energy
- Is fairly easy to consturct, using a key to identify different types
- Better than a bar chart as you can compare trends more acuratly and easily
- Creates precise readings
- See correlations and easy to interpret
- Gain a better understanding than the table
Wind- website evaluation-infosurhoy.com
- Aims to provide accurate and balanced information on development in South America
- Are sponsered by the US Southern Command which is a military organisation, may have their own agenda
- the site is easy to use with an interactive toolbar at the side
- has a search bar- easy navigation
quality of info
links for checking?
Brazil is a BRIC and a NIC Evidence Brazil is becoming an MEDC:
- Population growth rate is low, common charachteristic among MEDC's
- % of population living in urban areas is over 80%-associated with MEDC's
- As people move away from rural areas, employment becomes mainly tertiary and services which is Brazil's main employment sector
Evidence Brazil is still an LEDC:
- 20% are still working in primary industry, most LEDC's have around 6%
- GDP per capita is only $10,100, fairly low for a developing country
- population below poverty line is 26%
However GDP is increasing and as is population below poverty line
- Inefficent-low population density- needs to be transported, costs money and loses energy
- In dry seasoon- economically inefficent-lease efficent dam in Brazil
- Displaces 20,000-40,000-destruction of culture and knoledge, many move to the cities-struggle for work
- Illnesses- first contact with outsiders-TB outbreak-85% of Kayapo died,
- Flooding of the river=stagmant water= increase in mosquitos, malaria and other water borne diseases
- Flooding rainforest= methane released from plant matter on river bed
- Distupt local wildlife and ecosystems
- Human rights- never consulted
- Cost of construction- belived to be ..... but actual costs could be as high as...
- Diversion of 80% of the Xingu- extinction of fish
The dam will displace thousands of people:
- could have better living standards
- compensate them, better housing, money, energy
- move them to another part of the river
- force migration
- healthcare incentives
Sustainability of Belo Monte
- will increase investemnet- more able to develop
- very efficent in rainy season
- the displacement numbers are less than the three gorges dam
- there is already a natural drop which isnt too wide
- renewable energy-there for future use
- won't need as much maintenance as coal fired power stations
- more enviromentally friendly than gas, oil and coal
- economically viable
- loose species: zebra pleca,xingu poisin dart frog will become extinct
- lead to deforestation
- displacement of tribes and indigenous people
- no rainfall for 4-5 months in the dry season-38% less capacity
- it will be located far away from populated areas-have to transport it which may cause loss of energy
- will affect the river upstream and downstream
- loose rainforest
- rotting trees will release methane, more harmful(25%) than c02
- species are lost
- overcrowding could be a result of displacement into larger towns