BPS Ethical Principles and Guidelines

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Principle 1- Respect

Willing to explain the ethics of any study and maintaining the dignity of others such as culture, roles and individual differences
-rights e.g. privacy
-no matter what age, gender, culture etc they are

PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY:
-names of participants unknown
-everything must remain anonymous unless otherwise stated

INFORMED CONSENT:
-records of how, when and from where consent was obtained
-information- participation is voluntary, purpose, procedures, foreseeable risks, time etc
-children --> parents/guardians must also give informed consent
-not always possible (prevent demand characteristics): presumptive consent or prior general consent

SELF DETERMINATION: (right to withdraw)
-able to leave a study at any time, irrespective of payment
-told at the start of the study, no pressure if they don't wish to continue

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Principle 2- Competence

The level of ability of the researcher/practitioner in regards to what they are attempting to do
-understands the concepts in depth
-know what to do if something goes wrong

COMPETENCE:
-psychologists value the continuing development and maintenance of hgih standards to their professional work
-must consider ALL ethical and psychological consequences 
-preserve their ability to function optimally 
-knowledge of guidelines and aware of stuff 

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Principle 3- Responsibility

Taking care of participants and doing them no harm. They must assess harm in a debrief and take steps to put things right if there is an issue
-look out for patients needs during and after the study

DEBRIEFING:
-as soon as and as full as possible
-all questions must be answered honestly, idea of WHAT and WHY, told if deceived and why

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL HARM:
-mindful of any risks to the psychologists themselves
-protect participants from harm- they should not be exposed to greater risks than they would in their normal daily lives --> deal with this with follow up sessions- ensure no long lasting damage has been done
-do not embarrass, offend or frighten
-special care for vulnerable groups e.g. children 

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Principle 4- Integrity

Honesty and accuracy when dealing with others. Conflict of interest must be explained, personal boundaries should be maintained and deception avoided where possible
-do what's best for the participant
-100% honest where possible

DECEPTION:
-avoid unless there is NO alternative
-deceived as little as possible
-intentional deception has to be judged acceptable by experts (strong scientific justification) and ensure a full debrief is given after
-it is unacceptable if participants are likely to show unease once debriefed

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Risk Management

Risk --> the potential physical or psychological harm that might be caused by doing a study.

The risk of harm must be no greater than what a person would be exposed to in their normal lifestyle

ISSUES:
-'High Risk' dealt with first: high chance that it will occur- balance features of any threat by considering the likelihood of it happening and consequences if it does
-'Intangible Risk' --> high chance of it occuring but with unknown consequences, hard to put measures in place to manage it

PROCESS:
-risks identified and considered throughout the whole procedure and how it might occur
-how probable the risk is of occuring and severity of the consequences
-measures put in place to reduce the chance of it occuring
-BEST SOLUTIONS --> don't conduct the study or reduce it as far as possible 
-children risks- safeguarding, may receive information that has to be passed on, limits on confidentiality

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