Boxing Day Tsunami

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  • Created by: Olliejh98
  • Created on: 27-01-15 19:14

Backround info:

  • Indian Ocean
  • Indio-Australian Plate (Oceanic) subducted below Eurasian Plate (Cont.) This boundary is known as the Sundra Trench
  • This zone has stick/ slip frictional properties (the upper plate is dragged down with the subducting plate, causing a deformation)
  • Stress becomes too great and upper plate snaps back
  • This resulted in an Earthquake (mag.9)
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Tsunami

  • Earthquake caused seafloor to uplift
  • This led to the displacement of water resulting in a tsunami
  • Earthquake occured in ocean and seismic energy dissipated through Earths crust and as shockwaves through water
  • Earthquake was only 30km deep
  • Billions of tonnes of water displaced 
  • The drop in the seabed is quickly filled with rushing water
  • The uplifted water collapses because of this and travels out radially at 800kph
  • Open ocean measured less than 1 meter high
  • Once reached shores the wave had increased to about 15 meters  
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Timeline

  • 15mins after quake N.Sumatra is first hit and devastated
  • 30mins after quake 7000 killed in Nicobar Islands
  • 1hr after quake word not spread about deaths in Indonesia. People climb to tops of hotels
  • 2hrs after quake 45,000 killed in India and Sri Lanka
  • 3.75hrs after quake Maldives slightly affected
  • 7hrs after quake East Africa hit
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Effects

  • By the end of the day 150,000 dead
  • Final death toll was 283,000
  • Wave travelled as far as 3,000 miles to reach and destroy property/lives in Africa
  • Thirteen countries affected (worst being Indonesia)
  • Animals fled for high ground but few survived
  • Famine and epidemic diseases at high risk (bodies left rotting in the tropical heat contaminated food/water supplies)
  • 1.7 million people displaced
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Short Term Response

  • Many ran in search of high ground to survive though others simply froze as they realised their fate
  • Govts of affected countries reacted reasonably quickly but due to severity of disaster and economic development were heavily relaint on 'outside aid'
  • India sent naval ships to affected regions
  • Govts and humanitarian aid agencies ensured access to food/ clean water and medical care for the injured
  • USGS Warning was sent to Africa concerning the danger of diseases such as cholera and typhoid which could be prevented
  • Action aid raised 30 million and immediately sent food aid
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Long Term Response

  • Many have re-established buildings and businesses in local area whilst others have migrated
  • Country govts helped to rebuild communities such as the Aceh province
  • Early warning system in Indian Ocean now established between govts
  • UK govts Disasters and Emergency comittee established an emergency fund instantly
  • DEC Eathquake/ Tsunami disater appeal fund stood at 32 million, (7 million overnight and 15,000/minute at one point via donations)
  • MEDC'S such as UK sent dog teams, forensic experts and equipment to identify bodies and clean up after the disaster
  • Action aid offered psychological counseling, paid for housing/ boats for fishing, rebuilt schools and community centres
  • The Food and Agricultural organisation of the UN trained 140 boat builders and supplied 200 boats
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