Geography Case Studies

Aqa geography case studies - Health, rivers, coasts, population

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  • Created by: Syder
  • Created on: 21-04-14 18:16

Boscastle MEDC Flooding

  • 16th August 2004
  • Cornwall
  • 440 million gallons of water
  • Biggest airlift in Britain since WW2 - 150 people, 7 helecopters
  • Meeting of Valency and Jordan Rivers
  • ! month of rainfall in two hours
  • 3m wall of water
  • 100 homes destroyed
  • Work contined on area for 4 years
  • 75 cars destroyed
  • 1 in 400 year event
  • No deaths
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South Asia LEDC Flooding

  • July and August 2007 - Bangladesh and India
  • Sudden monsoon rain
  • Heavy rainfall
  • Assam in India had 900mm in July
  • Saturated soil -> Surface run off
  • Peak discharge of Ganges and Brahmaputra coincided
  • Deforestation in Nepal
  • Growth of urban areas
  • 2000 deaths
  • 100000 had water born diseases
  • 25 million homeless
  • 112000 houses destroyed in India
  • 4000 schools affected 
  • Cost 1 billion
  • 10000km of roads destroyed
  • 550000 hectares of farm land couldnt be used
  • Loss of livestock
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Hard River Management- Three Gorges Dam

  • Built of Yangtze river in China in 1994
  • Planned to flood area behind to 175 metres 
  • 13 cities flooded
  • 1.25 million forced to move
  • New cities built to accomodate 
  • 62,000 acres of farmland flooded 
  • Largest sourse of HEP in the world - 3% of chinas demands - 26 turbines
  • Destruction of touristic landscapes 
  • 1.2 miles long
  • Stops Yangtze floods which have killed 500,000 people and will protect 15 million people
  • Reservoir may fill with sediment
  • Destroyed habitats e.g. Baiji Dolphins
  • Created jobs
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Soft River Management - Abingdon

  • South East England - On flood planes of river Thames and river Ock
  • Floods in July 2007 due to intense storms
  • Gravel soakways built along A34
  • Land use management, Tilsey Sports Park built on flood plain
  • Local flood warning plan provides a 24 hour Floodline
  • Restrictions on building in certain areas (flood plains) to reduce urbanisation and flood risk to potential property 
  • Voluntary flood wardens
  • Tree planting around local areas 
  • Detailed advice on the internet
  • Reduction of damage with little cost yet flooding continues
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Coastal Erosion - The Holderness Coastline

  • 61km long from Flamborough head to Spurn Head
  • Erodes at an average rate of 1.8m a year
  • Erodes 10m a year in Great Cowden
  • Cliffs made of till or "boulder clay", which is easily eroded
  • Narrow beaches due to coastal defences at Mappleton and sediment stopped at Flamborough head
  • Powerful waves with a long fetch
  • Coast faces domonant wind direction
  • Sharp fall in property prices along the coastline
  • 30 villages lost since roman times
  • Many caravan parks loosing 10 pitches a year
  • 2 Million spent in Mappleton to protect the coast in  1991
  • 80,000m^2 of farmland lost a year affecting livelihoods 
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Coastal Flooding - Boxing Day Tsunami 2004

  • Southen Asia - 26th December 2004
  • Hit Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thiland and India
  • Caused by an earthquake in the Indian Ocean - 9 on the richter scale (one of strongest ever)
  • Travelled across the Bay of Bengal at 800 km an hour
  • 30m high waves struck parts of indonesia
  • 230,000 people killed or missing
  • 1.7 million made homeless
  • Polluted water sources
  • 400,000 jobs lost in Sri Lanka 
  • Initial damage around $12 billion
  • Fishing industry affected
  • Salinisation reduced soil fertility
  • Tourism heavily reduced
  • 8 million litres of oil releaced into the ocean
  • Mangrove forests were damaged
  • High salt content destroyed the natural balence of many ecosystems e.g. Karagan Lagoon
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Coastal Management - Hard - Westbay

  • Dorest on the coastline of the Isle of Perbeck
  • On the Jarassic Coast 
  • Two peers built in 1740 to protect harbor used for ship building
  • Honeypot site
  • Deffences replaced in 2004 with 151,000 tonnes of material
  • Defences include a sea wall, rock armour, rock groynes
  • Protects 500 homes, 350 static caravans, 55 businesses 
  • Cost 14 million 
  • Constructed during the winter to avoid disruption
  • Protection owned by DEFRA and the local Dorset council
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Coastal Management - Soft - Blackwater Estuary

  • On the Essex coastline
  • Eroded at a rate of between 0.3 and 1m a year 
  • Coastal realignment at Tollesbury Fleet in 1995 and at Bradwell-on-Sea breaching sea walls and flooding farmland to encourage marshland to form
  • Beaches have been nourished at Mersa Island
  • March stablisation carried out by planting stakes and brushwood on the waterline to encourage sediment buildup
  • Schemes are more sustainable in the long term and are cheaper
  • Coastal realignment cost the same as rebuilding the sea wall but will last much longer
  • Marshland creates a habitat for wildlife
  • Grazing land lost and some areas have not yet turned into marshland.
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