Bonding Structures

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  • Created by: perks23
  • Created on: 26-02-15 13:45

Ionic Bonding

  • Melting and Boiling points - There are many strong bonds throughout the lattice, which need lots of energy to break and so there is a high melting point and boiling points.
  • Conducting ElectricityWhen melted or dissolved in water, the ions are free to move around and so can carry a current when a potential is applied. 
  • Hard substancesThe many strong bonds throughout the lattice, which each need a lot of energy (e.g.force) to break, which means that the substance is harder and stronger.
  • SolubilityWater molecules are able to separate the ions from the ionic lattice, so that it breaks apart and the substance dissolves.
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Metallic Bonding

  • Melting and Boiling points - There is a very strong electrostatic attraction between the delocalised electrons and the cations, so lots of energy is required to break these bonds (except mercury).
  • Conducting Electricity - The delocalised electrons can move throughout the giant metallic lattice and so can carry a current when a potential is applied.
  • Conducting Heat - The cations are arranged in a regular arrangement touching each other. Therefore, when heated they vibrate more and their energy is easily passed through the lattice.
  • Malleable and Ductile - The regular arrangment means that the layers can easily slide over each other when a force is applied.
  • Insoluble
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Simple Molecular

  • Low melting and Boiling pointsThe weak intermolecular forces between molecules means that little energy is needed to overcome these, hence the low melting and boiling points.
  • Doesn't Conduct ElectricityThere are no free electrons because they have NO overall charge.
  • Insoluble
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Giant Covalent

Diamond ( and Silicon) -

  • Each Carbon atom forms 4 strong covalent bonds with other atoms to give a tetrahedral structure.
  • High melting and boiling points - A lot of energy is required to break the many strong bonds, hence the high melting and boiling points.
  •  Hard Substance - The many strong bonds each require a large force to break them.
  • Doesn't conduct electricity - No free electrons to carry a current when a potential is applied. 
  • Insoluble
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Giant Covalent (Continued)

Graphite

  • Each Carbon atoms forms 3 strong covalent bonds with other Carbon atoms, resulting in a layered structure.
  • One spare electron is delocalised between the layers.
  • The layers are held together by weak intermolecular forces.
  • High Melting and Boiling points - The many strong bonds require a lot of energy to break, hence the high melting and boiling points.
  • Soft Substance - Little force is needed to overcome the weak intermolecular forces.
  • Conducting Electricity - The free delocalised electron is able to carry a current when a potential is applied.
  • Insoluble
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Giant Covalent (Continued)

Silicon Dioxide

  • Each Silicon atom is covalently bonded to 4 oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral structure
  • High Melting and Boiling Points-  Many strong bonds mean that a lot of energy is required to break them, hence the high melting and boiling points.
  • Hard SubstanceThere are many strong bonds, therefore a large force is required to break them.
  • Doesn't Conduct ElectricityThere are no free electrons to carry a current when a potential is applied.
  • Insoluble
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