Bonding (Ionic, covalent, dative covalent, chemical)

In this revision tool you will learn about ionic bonding, covalent bonding, dative covalent bonding (also known as co-ordinate bonding) and chemical bonding.

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Co-ordinate bonding/Dative covalent bonding

  • when both electrons in a pair are coming from a single atom

Covalent bonding is when two atoms 'share' a pair of electrons. Dative covalent bonding is when both electrons in that pair come from the same atom, and 'donate' them to the other atom.

  • the atom 'donating' the electrons has to have a lone pair of electrons
    • a lone pair of electrons is a pair of electrons that are not involved in any other type of bonding e.g. covalent
  • the atom accepting the electrons is an electron deficient atom (it does not have enough electrons to fill its outer shell)

Dative covalent bonding is represented with an arrow rather than by lines.

For example, the bond between a carbon and oxygen atom is carbon oxide can be displayed as  C --- O. But dative covalent bonding looks different.

For H3O+, two hydrogen atoms would covalently bond with the oxygen, and these two bonds are show by normal lines (--) but the third hydrogen bonds with oxygen with a dative covalent bond. Therefore that part of the diagram would look like this: O --> H rather than O -- H.

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Covalent bonding

  • this is when two or more atoms 'share' pairs of electrons in order for them to have a full outer shell
  • this is the bond between two atoms that share electrons
  • this forms between a pair of non-metal atoms
  • a molecule is formed when two atoms bond covalently
  • covalent bonding holds atoms together through an electrostatic attraction between the neclai and the shared pair of electrons
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Chemical bonding

  • a chemical bond is a force of attraction between two atoms
  • a chemical bond is formed when atoms share or transfer electrons to get a stable electron arrangement
  • a stable electron arrangement is one in which the outer shell of an atoms electron configuration is complete (full)

There are three types of chemical bonding:

  • covalent
  • ionic
  • metallic
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Ionic bonding

  • occurs between metals and non-metals
  • an atom gives away one or more electrons and another atom (or several) takes those electrons
  • this is done to give both (or all) atoms a full outer shell
  • it works due to the force of attraction between oppositely-charged ions
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