Bonding and Structure

Metallic Bonding

Covalent Network Bonding

Covalent Molecular Solid Bonding

Covalent Molecular Diatomic Gas Bonding

Monatomic Bonding

Ionic Bonding

Non-Polar Molecules

Polar Molecules

Hydrogen Bonding

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Metallic Bonding

  • Intermolecular bonding
  • Delocalised electrons
  • electrically conductive
  • examples ofelements involved (from first 20 in periodic table):
    • Lithium (L)
    • Beryllium (Be)
    • Sodium (Na)
    • Magnesium (M)
    • Aluminium (Al)
    • Potassium (K)
    • Calcium (Ca)
  • relatively high melting and boiling points
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Covalent Network Bonding

  • Intermolecular bonding
  • difference in electronegativity of elements involved is zero
  • not electrically conductive (except graphite)
  • examples ofelements involved (from first 20 in periodic table):
    • Boron (B)
    • Silicon (Si)
    • Carbon (C) - in the form of a diamond tetrahedral or graphite layers
  • very high melting and boiling points
  • insoluble
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Covalent Molecular Solid Bonding

  • Intermolecular bonding
  • interacts byVan der Waals
  • not electrically conductive
  • examples ofelements involved (from first 20 in periodic table):
    • Phosphorus (P)
    • Sulphur (S)
    • C60 fullerene
  • low melting and boiling points
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Covalent Molecular Diatomic Gas Bonding

  • Intermolecular bonding
  • interacts byVan der Waals
  • not electrically conductive
  • examples ofelements involved (from first 20 in periodic table):
    • Hydrogen (H)
    • Nitrogen (N)
    • Oxygen (O)
    • Fluorine (F)
    • Chlorine (Cl)
  • low melting and boiling points
  • sharing electrons
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Monatomic Bonding

  • Intermolecular bonding
  • interacts byVan der Waals
  • not electrically conductive
  • examples ofelements involved (from first 20 in periodic table):
    • Helium (He)
    • Neon (Ne)
    • Argon (Ar)
  • low melting and boiling points
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Ionic Bonding

  • Intermolecular bonding
  • only electrically conductive in molton or aqueous form
  • difference in electronegativity of elements involved is usually >2.1
  • very high melting and boiling points
  • soluble in water
  • insoluble in non-aqueous solutions
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Non-Polar Molecules

  • Intramolecular bonding
  • interacts by Van der Waals
  • difference in electronegativity of elements involved is usually 0 - 0.4
  • low melting and boiling points
  • soluble in non-aqueous solutions
  • insoluble in water
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Polar Molecules

  • Intramolecular bonding
  • interacts by dipole-dipole
  • not electrically conductive
  • difference in elctronegativity of elements involved is usually 0.4 - 2.1 (full symmetry cancels polarity)
  • low melting and boiling points
  • slightly soluble in water and non-aqueous solutions
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Hydrogen Bonding

  • Intramolceular bonding
  • stronger than Van der Waals
  • difference in electronegativity of elements involved is usually >2.1
  • elements involved (hydrogen bonded to):
    • Nitrogen (N)
    • Oxygen (O)
    • Fluorine (F)
  • moderately high melting and boiling points
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