Bonding and Properties

The different bonding types and the properties of these bonds. Includes Giant structures.

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Ionic Compounds

 

  High Melting and Boiling Points

Soluble

Conduct electricity when molten or in solute (dissolved in water)

  

                        

                                                              

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Ionic Compounds

Bonding:

- Between Non-Metals and Metals

- Attractive electrostatic forces between oppositely charged ions (Positive) and delocalised electrons (Negative) act in all directions.

- Holds the lattice tightly together with a strong force

Properties:

- because of strong force holding compound together, high melting and boiling points

- Many will dissolve in water - are soluble

 

 

 

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Simple Molecules (Simple Covalent Molecules)

 

 

Low melting and boiling points

Does not conduct

Generally insoluble or less soluble

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Simple Molecules (Simple Covalent Molecules)

Bonding:

- Between non-metals

- Share electrons in outer shell - Covalent bonds

- Covalent bond is very strong (atoms are held very tightly together) however molecules tend to be quite separate from neighbouring molecules, so intermolecular forces are weak.

Properties:

- low melting and boiling points

- means they are usually liquids or gases at room temperature

- no overall charge on the molecules so does not conduct.

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Giant Covalent Substances... Graphite

An exception to rule of Covalent Substances

Atoms arranged in layers that slide over eachother

Is soft

Can conduct electricity

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Giant Covalent Substances... Graphite

- an exception to rule of Covalent Substances

- Atoms arranged in layers

- Weak forces between these layers so they can slide over eachother (Makes substance slippery)

Conductivity:

- Atoms in graphite's laters arranged in hexagons. So each carbon atom bonds to three others, leaving one electron that becomes delocalised.

- Graphite can conduct electricity

Graphite

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Giant Covalent Substances

Bonding:

- a large network of atoms covalently bonded

- Very strong bonding

Properties:

- Very hard substances

- high melting and boiling points

- Very Chemically unreactive

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Giant Covalent Substances

Sometimes called:

Giant Covalent Substances

Macromolecules

Giant Molecular Structures

Summary:

Very strong & Hard

High melting and Boiling Points

Unreactive

... EXCEPT GRAPHITE!!

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Giant Metallic Structures

 

 

Metallic Bonding

Can Conduct

Can be bent if a force is applied, layers of atoms slide over eachother

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Giant Metallic Structures

Bonding:

- Strongly held together by delocalised electrons, electrostatic attraction between positive ions and negative electrons acting in all directions holds metal tightly.

Properties

- Metals can be bent into shape because they are arranged in layers that can slide over eachother; the delocalised electrons enable the lattice to distort so that the metal atoms can move past one another.

- Metals conduct as a direct results of delocalised electrons which can flow through the giant metallic lattice

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