Ionic Covalent Metallic

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  • Created by: Kavita :)
  • Created on: 15-01-11 13:19

Electron shells/ions

Atoms that have lost or gained an electron(s) are ions.

Group 1 and 2 elements are metals, they lose electrons (+ve ions)

Group 6 and 7 are non-mentals, they gain electrons (-ve ions)



Ions have the electronic structure of a noble gas (Group 0)

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Ionic Bonding


Giant Lattice Structure. Positive and negative ions, strong attraction between them (electrostatic forces)

Type of Bonding

Ionic - Metals and non-metals

Melting/Boiling Points

High due to string attraction between positive and megative ions

Conduct Electricity?

Solid - NO       Liquid - YES                     

Usually soluble in water

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Covalent Bonding


Giant Structure. Atoms joined together by strong covalent bonds

Type of Bonding

Covalent – Diamond, Graphite, and Silicon Dioxide

Melting/Boiling Points

Very High due to many strong covalent bonds

Conduct Electricity?

No (diamond, silicon dioxide – as liquid/solid)

Yes (Graphire as a solid – delocalised electrons)     insoluble in water

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Simple Molecular Stuctures

Made up of many individual molecules.

These molecules are not joined to each other.

Within molecules the atoms are joined with strong covalent bonds.

Weak forces between the molecules.

Low melting and boiling points

Conduct electricity?

No, because there are no ions.

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Giant Covalent Structures

No charged Ions. Very High boiling and melting points. Do not conduct electricity. Insoluble in water.


Each carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds. Hardest natural substance. Pretty + Sparkly


Each carbon atom forms 3 covalent bonds. Layers slide over each other. Free electrons. Only non-metal which is a good conducter of electricity.

Silicon Dioxide - SAND

One giant structure of silicon and oxygen.

Melted down with sodium carbonate and limestone to make glass.

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Metallic Structures

Conducts Electrictity (Solid/Liquid) Insoluble in water The strong electrostatic attraction between positive ions and negative ions.


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