Atoms that have lost or gained an electron(s) are ions.
Group 1 and 2 elements are metals, they lose electrons (+ve ions)
Group 6 and 7 are non-mentals, they gain electrons (-ve ions)
METALS = LOSE
NON-MENTALS = GAIN
Ions have the electronic structure of a noble gas (Group 0)
Giant Lattice Structure. Positive and negative ions, strong attraction between them (electrostatic forces)
Type of Bonding
Ionic - Metals and non-metals
High due to string attraction between positive and megative ions
Solid - NO Liquid - YES
Usually soluble in water
Giant Structure. Atoms joined together by strong covalent bonds
Type of Bonding
Covalent – Diamond, Graphite, and Silicon Dioxide
Very High due to many strong covalent bonds
No (diamond, silicon dioxide – as liquid/solid)
Yes (Graphire as a solid – delocalised electrons) insoluble in water
Simple Molecular Stuctures
Made up of many individual molecules.
These molecules are not joined to each other.
Within molecules the atoms are joined with strong covalent bonds.
Weak forces between the molecules.
Low melting and boiling points
No, because there are no ions.
Giant Covalent Structures
No charged Ions. Very High boiling and melting points. Do not conduct electricity. Insoluble in water.
Each carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds. Hardest natural substance. Pretty + Sparkly
Each carbon atom forms 3 covalent bonds. Layers slide over each other. Free electrons. Only non-metal which is a good conducter of electricity.
Silicon Dioxide - SAND
One giant structure of silicon and oxygen.
Melted down with sodium carbonate and limestone to make glass.
Conducts Electrictity (Solid/Liquid) Insoluble in water The strong electrostatic attraction between positive ions and negative ions.