Blood and Heart

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there are 2 types : Primary Response

  • exposes to pathogen
  • immune cells recognise it
  • 4/5 days to show systems 
  • antibodies multiply 
  • antibodies level rise
  • recovery
  • antibody level full 

and Secondary Response 

  • exposes to pathogen
  • immune cells recognise it immediatly 
  • multiply rabidly 
  • antibodies level reises + remains high
  • remains high due to memory cells
  • stays in body for lifetime =life long immunity 
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Functions + Structures of the heart

pulmonary vein = oxygenated blood 

valve = bicuspid + tricuspid, this prevents backflow of blood 

Tendon = heart strings, supports the valves + stops blowing inside out 

vena cava = largest vein 

Pulmonary vein = carries blood away (deoxygenated) 

Aorta = biggest artery carries oxygenated blood 

Semi- lunar = half moon shape valve 

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White Blood Cells

(refer to notes for picture)

they protect against pathogens ( disease causing organisms) , have nucelus  + are larger than red blood cells 

Phagocytes , they are cell eaters, engulf pathogens + realse digestive enzymes + destory body cells 

Lymphocytes = it recignises that its foreugn, they make chemicals called antibodies and attack in a number of ways, by making them stick toghter, dissolve them , destroy toxins, that pathogens make = immune to the disease 

Vaccinations results in a memory cell, that allows antibodies to occur sooner, faster,quicker + in larger quantities upon the next exposure + provides peotection against disease ex) polio 

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Circulatory system

blood carries oxygen + nutrients to the body cells 

Heart = muscualr pump

Arteries = carries blood away from heart + high presssure, thick, muscle 

Veins = return it back to the heart + lower pressure,  thin walls 

Capilaries = tiny blood vessels, near body cells +b oxygen + diffuse from cells 

Double Circulation = 2 systems happening at the same time one bringing blood and the other bringing dexoygenated blood 

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liquid part of the blood, contains mostly water

yellow strawed color 

contains dissolved chemicals eg) glucose 

contains plasma, reedblod cells and whiteblood cells 

transports heat energy around the body 

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Red Blood Cells

biconcave shap = disc shape, carries oxygen , allows eeasy mmovemen around the body 

No Nucleus, more room for oxygen 

contains haemoglobin red pigment = contains oxygen

small + flexible= to fit inside small blood capilaries 

large number 

carries both oxygenated + dexoygenated 

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Types of blood

red blood = in the bone marrow, 120 days, no nucelus , oxygen

phagocytes = in the bone marrow, 6-16 days , lobed, bacteria 

lymphocytes = in the bone marrow, few days , yes, destroys pathogen

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Mechanism of a heartbeat

  • blood enters atria, vlaves are closed 
  • wall of atria contract, rise in blood pressure, forces open valves into ventricels 
  • ventricles are full, contracct, cannont return to atria 
  • ventricles continue + pressure increases, blood is ejected in to the pulmonary+ aorta atery and carries to lungs and body 
  • higher presure means aorta closes + valves close, aorta starts to refil with blood, proces restarts
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made of cardiacmuscle, its a muscular pump, 4 chambers, contains valves

Top chamber = right artium, left atrium 

Bottom Chamber = right ventricle, left ventricle 

right has a tricuspid valves, thinner muscle as pressure is low 

left has a bicuspid valve, higher pressure as to pump the blood 

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