Blackpool - Butler's model - Background
Blackpool is situated on the coast of the Irish Sea in Lancashire. Its population is 142,900 making it the fourth most densely populated district in England and Wales outside Greater London.
Blackpool - Butler's model - Exploration
In 1720 the only visitors were the landed gentry (group of gentlemen who owned large estates of land and didn’t need to work, they lived entirely off their rented income) who would ride on the beach and bathe in the sea. Edward Whiteside was the first person to build a guest house, it was built in 1735. Four hotels were there in 1780 like Bailey’s hotel (Metropole). There were bowling greens and facilities for archery. The main attraction was the sea, and people would either ride or bathe there. A bell was rung when it was time for the ladies to bathe and any gentleman found on the beach was fined a bottle of wine.
Blackpool - Butler's model - Involvement
In 1781 Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Houghton built 1st private road into Blackpool. Stage coaches rain from Manchester and Halifax. This allowed people from the mill towns of northern England access to cheap transport to the resort. However it took a day to reach Blackpool from Manchester and two days from Yorkshire.
Henry Banks built the first holiday cottages in the 1820’s. Dr John Cocker, Henry’s son in law built the first assembly rooms where the tourists could meet and enjoy events. 1840 was when the first railway in the area was built but it only ran as far Poulton. The journeys could be completed by Wagonette. In 1846 thousand of day trippers visited as a branch line was built from Poulton to Blackpool.
Blackpool - Butler's model - Development
The promenade was built along the sea front (1856 - 1870)
1863 was when the North Pier opened which led to development of facilities like the theatre royal and the talbot raod assembly rooms. In 1870, central pier opened with open air dancing for the working classes. New promenade was opened to the south which linked different areas of Blackpool together
Blackpool - Butler's model - consolidation
Lots of attractions were built in 1872 in the Raikes Hall Pleasure Gardens like a lake, racecourse, football and cricket ground, skating rink, aviary, monkey house, ballroom and a theatre. In 1872 Blackpool achieved 850,000 tourists. Several years later in 1878 the winter gardens opened which was Blackpool first large indoor entertainment venue.
1885 – There was a lack of transport systems so the council built an electrical tramway along the seafront. Blackpool tower was finally built during 1891-1894 which had a circus and a ballroom. During the mid 1890’s theatres and promenade opened. In the late 1890’s traders on the beach were banned and were moved into the gardens of houses on the promenade; the towns’ railway was rebuilt to handle the increasing number of tourists arriving.
1923 was when the first Blackpool carnival took place. The pleasure beach was modernized in 1930. In 1931 Blackpool Received 3,850,000 visitors! And in 1939 new opera house opened which was Britain’s largest cinema and theatre.
Blackpool - Butler's model - Stagnation
Blackpool Zoo opened in 1972. In 1975 the M55 opened between the M6 and Blackpool making it easier to reach Blackpool by road, a car park was built at the end of the motorway to accomodate 6,000 cars. There are now 3 railway stations in Blackpoo. In 1980 the hounds hill centre opened, this was the first indoor shopping centre in Blackpool with 40 shops!
Blackpool - Butler's Model - Decline
- Visitor nights declined from 16m to 10.5m
- The average annual hotel occupancy reduced to 22%
- Annual day visits have declines from 7.4m to 3.9m
- The seasonal economy has shortened, the has become less pronounced.
- Annual spend by overnight visitors has declined from 800million to 500million at 2004 prices
Then in 1990 Blackpool sea life centre opened to try and rejuvenate the town
Blackpool - Butler's model - Rejuvenation
In 2003 a rejuvenation project started:
- 26,700 new jobs created
- 2.2bn of capital to be invested
- 40,000 sq metres of retail, casino, leisure, conference, office and airport development
- 5,700f new homes to be built.
- 7m additional visitors per year
- 127 hectares of Brownfield sites will be redevelopment
Blackpool - Butler's model - Rejuvenation (continu
•2004 brought 11,000,000 visitors
2005, a widened road and new parking facilities have been built. There will be a new parkland area with rock climbing towers and all weather games pitches.
2008, the bond hotel, on bond street, is to have a 14m upgrade. The existing building will be demolished and replaced with a bigger hotel, with 142 bedrooms compared with 65 in the current premises.
Autumn 2008, the council has recently approved the Talbot gateway project. This will see the building of a new business district which will include offices, shops, a food store, cares and restaurants, along with residential apartments and town centre parking.
2009, New coastal defence scheme will be completed costing 80m along 3.2km of Blackpool seafront