Black Leaders & Organisations & Roles AS USA RAce History OCR Spec B

the role of various black leaders and organisations

  • Created by: Alex
  • Created on: 18-05-11 14:29

Frederick Douglass 1865 -95

  • Opponent Of Slavery
  • Supporter of all vivil rights (not just black)
  • Raisedwaareness (newspaper & speecdhes)
  • Frederick Douglass was one of the foremost leaders of the abolitionist movement
  • Born a slave with black mother and white father
  • Learnt to read and write despite laws against slave literacy
  • escaped from slavery settled i nNorth
  • became prominent speaker for anti slave movement 0 told to speak less intellligently - white people couldn't believe he had been a slave
  • wrote autobiography ,Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglas, written by himself
  • edited weekly reform journal , North Star
  • Wrote The Heroric slave - showed ocnviction that slaves should rebel for freedom
  • favour of Lincoln's emancipation proclamation 1863 -(proclaimed the freedom of 3.1 million of the nation's 4 million slaves)
  • Married white woman in 1882 after death of 1st wife - antagonised blacks & whites
  • Urged blacks to stick with republican party
  • Denounced lynchings, disfranchisement 7 segregation
  • supported Ida B.Wells on campaign in Britain against lynching
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Self-Help Groups (1865)

Compromised of Freedmen who joined their earning to buy land to provide schools and teachers

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Booker. T Washington (1881 - 1915)

  • Ran Tuskegee Institute
  • Gave Alanta Speech
  • Accomiddation
  • Organised ***** Buisiness League
  • Born into slave family in Virginia
  • ettended local elementary school for blacks after family freed
  • attended hampton institute, virginia
  • appointed principal of Tuskegee 1881 - an institute of higher education for blacks - minimal funding - had to teach in chicken coops - felt best opportunities for black were in industry - provided a vocational education
  • Alanta compromise speech - seemed to accept segregation and emphasised economic advancement for blacks - appeared in front of important southern white & black gathering
  • Founded National ***** Business League-promote the commercial and financial development of the *****
  • Autobiography 'Up from Slavery'
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Booker. T Washington (1881 - 1915) continued

  • 5 day race riots in Alanta - washington helped bring sides together
  • Poor relations with NAACP - might decrease his influence
  • Disagreements with W.E.B Du Bois - qorked together on repeal of railroad segregation laws - different opposite backgrounds -BTW wanted to concentrate on improving economic positiion whereas Du bois though legal, political & economic prosperity & equality must be achieved 1st
  • Du Bois sought rapid intergration Washington favoured seperate but equal
  • frightened of lynchings -felt agressive approach would only alienate whites
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T. Thomas Fourtune (1883-1928)

  • Editor of newspapers protesting against treatment of blacks
  • Supporter of Garvey
  • President of Afro- American Council
  • National Afro american League - supported by Ida.B.Wells
  • Editor of New York Age, a leading black newspaper - anti lynching & pro civil rights - refused adverts for hair straghtening & civil rights
  • Worked with Booker.T.Washington
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Ida B.Wells (1884-1931)

  • Sued Railroad company
  • Public opposition to lynching
  • Women's rights
  • Born into slave family
  • became teacher in Memohis, Tenessee
  • sued railway company in 1883 after dragged from 1st class carridge & won
  • sued again in 1884 - won $500
  • sued again in 1887 - railroad comapny owm - ruled segregation allowed
  • wrote for black publications - princess of the press
  • wrote article condemming lynching - forced to leave memphis & live in north
  • Campaigned in Britain against lynching
  • tryed to get government to legislate against lynching
  • one of 40 founders of NAACP (National Assosiation in Advancement of Coloured People)
  • Helped found first black women's suffrage club called the alpha suffrage club - assisted in election of Chicargo's first black Alderman - Oscar de Priest
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Ida B.Wells Continued

  • 1896 - founded NACW (National assosiation for coloured Women) - set up schools, orphanages , hospitals & elderly homes -left as wasn't doing enought for rights
  • Spported women#s rights
  • Passport withdrawn so couldn't attent Paris peace conference as nominated delegate of MArcus Garvey's UNIA (Uniersal ***** Improvement Assosiation)
  • publisised post-war race riots - federal authorities thought she and Oscar de Priest were making bombs
  • Helped establish A.Philip Randolph's Brotherhood of Sleeping Car porters and maids - first all black labour union
  • ran sucessfully for political office as independent = said democrates anti-black and republicans abandonded south after reconstruction
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W.E.B Du Bois

  • Founded Niagra movement (1905)
  • Founded NAACP

Born in massachusetts (N. state)
Graduated 1st in class but rejected by Harvard
Went to Fisk, black university & experienced first southern racism
Taught an uni in ohio
Wrote 'Souls of black folk' - identified colour line as problem in 20th century
Established Niagra Movement - work for civil rights and politica equality
Establishment of NAACP  which launded leagal suits & produced propoganda to help blacks
Edited crisis (NAACP magazine) - articles against lynching - forced to resign
impressed by marxism in soviet union
Worked  for NAACP until forced to resign
Pro -USSR anti USA in cold War - passport confiscated
Emigrated to Africa

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WEB Du Bois COntinued

Full civil rights
End of segregation
Extension of franchise
Equal opportunity in all aspects of life
African Americans entitled vote & freedom every American citizen has enjoyed - Niagra movement
Against lynching
Against Jim Crow Laws
Against sexual inequality - every argument for ***** suffrage is argument for women't suffrage

Tried to put pressure on government
Editor of crisis
Against film Birth of a nation

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W.e.B Du Bois Continued

Most influential critic
Du Bois Favoured vociferous campaiging for restoration of rights
Washington preffeded to reassure and conciliate white whilst quietly campaigning - earn position
Blamed BTW for decline in black academic education

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NAACP (1909-Present)

  • Both Black and white supporters
  • Peaceful
  • Focus on legal aspects
  • Constirutional organisation
  • Significant long term role
  • Aim to make  Americans 11million blacks economically, intellectually, politically and socially free and equal
  • Had a newspaper - The Crisis - Edited by W.E.B Du Bois
  • Numbers increased from 50,000 - 450,000 during WW2

Timeline of NAACP:

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NAACP (1909-Present) Contiuned


  • Sucessful court litigation - 1915 - outlawed Grandfather clause
  • Anti-lynching campaign - publisised horrors of lynchinc - helped decrease
  • 88,448 members in 1919
  • Supported a National Committee to Abolish The Poll Tax
  • NAACP Lawyer represented Brown in Brown Vs Board of education supreme court case - intergation of schools should happen

How NAACP helped blacks

  • Pressure group
  • Worked to raise awareness amongst Southern Blacks
  • Moderate and long-lasting it won respect from moderate whites
  • Local branches initiated protests
  • Its leaders and employees became role models for the black community
  • Took cases to the law courts to get rulings against discrimination
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NAACP (1909-Present) Continued


  • W.E.B Du Bois - worked to increase sense of community & edited Crisis
  • Ida B.Wells
  • Not supported by Booker.T.Wahington -  worried establishment might decrease influene in black comminuity - poor relations
  • Roy Wilkins asked by Walter White to become assistnat
  • Walter White defeated Du Bois to become leader
  • Supportted by Truman
  • MLK
  • Ella Baker - travelled to set up & stimulate NAACP - first female president of NYC NAACP branch

Montgomery bus boycott:
Took On Rosa Park's Case
Further reading:

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Marcus Garvey (1917 - 1925)

  • Founded UNIA (Universal ***** Improvement Assosiation) - swelled after WWI to 500,000 members of blacks frustrated by progress (way baove NAACP)
  • black's taking control of own affairs
  • Black Eagle star Steamship
  • Open air parades
  • Military style leadership
  • Born in Jamaica
  • Eventually Deoprted
  • Believed God was black
  • Advocated self-help, armed self-defence & seperation of races
  • Appealed to racial pride
  • 'Back to Africa' in spititual not physical sense
  • Frightened & alienated many blacks
  • Other leaders jealous of his appeal to black w/c - often lighter skinned resented his claims of the 'blacker the better' - Du Bois called 'little, fat black man' and 'Most dangerous enemy of the ***** race- lightskinned doctor said UNIA stood for 'Ugliest ***** in America) - Randolph called 'jamaican *******'
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UNIA (Universal ***** Improvement Assosiation) (19

  • Campaigned for equal rights and independence of blacks rather than absorbing into the melting pot
  • Encouraged to develop own institutions etc
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Thurgood MArshall (1940-1993)

  • Black Lawyer winning nearly all the NAACP cases
  • First black justice of the supreme court
  • In all his cases in the Supreme Court, Marshall won 29 out of 32 cases
  • Most Famous case is the Brown v. Board of education
  • Involved in Plessy v. Ferguson

Further reading:

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CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)

  • Racial Equality
  • Boycotts
  • Sit-ins
  • Freedom Rides 1911
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1955 - Montgomery Bus Boycott - Head of  MIA and key figure

1963 - Birmingham protest - America's worst big city - would produce white violence that won national sympathy - 1000 marched downtown -MLF arrested JFK intevened - police attacked peaceful black's - US wittnessed

1963 - I have a dream speech - March On Washington

  • sitisns - becam involved bu started by students
  • Freedom rides
  • Peaceful
  • Desegregation & political rights
  • Views later changed
  • Founded the SCLC in 1857
  • First black student of a uni 0 caused riots resulting in 2 deaths
  • Assasinated

Useful Link:

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Malcom X (1960 - 65)

  • Member of Nation of Islam
  • Was told in school to forget being a lwayer as it wasn;t a realistic goal for a ******
  • started off as criminal
  • Changed surname to X as previous surname was his 'slave' surname
  • violent - Critical of MLK non violence
  • Economic and Social rights
  • Wrote in a journal
  • Gave Speeches
  • Black superiority
  • Views changed later
  • Assasinated by NOI (Nation of Islam)
  • Encourage critical thinking in  race problems
  • Put forward extremist position to make King's demand more acceptable to white population
  • Drew attention to dreadful conditions in Ghettps
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SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coorinating Comittee)

  • Greensbro 4
  • Fromed as a results to the Greensbourugh sitins -
  • 4 students sat in at a lunch counter in Woolworths and prdered coffee, doughnuts & Doda - 1960
  • Freedom summer - 61 & 64
  • Non Violent
  • Core also involved in Freedom Summer
  • Stokley Carmichael - more violence

Useful Links:

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