- Created by: Redheadxx
- Created on: 10-10-19 12:29
The Great Migration
- 6 million black Americans from rural South to North
- From 1916-1970
- Driven from homes due to: unsatisfactory economic opportunities & segregation laws.
- Took advantage of opportunities that war offered, eg: soldiers
- Built a new place for themselves eg; Harlem and Queens.
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Context & causes of Great Migration
- White supremacy largely restored in the South.
- Jim Crow laws became law of the land.
- Ku Klux Klan had been officially dissolved in 1869, continued underground.
- Violence and lynching of black southerners became common.
- North and Midwest faced a shortage of labourer's.
- As war came nearer African American's came North to the dismay of white Southerners.
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Great Migration: Life for Migrants in the City
- By end of 1919 some 1 million blacks left the South travelling by train,boat or bus.
- Between 1910-1920 the percentage of Black Americans in cities was: New York (66%), Chicago (148%), Piladelphia (500%) and Detroit (611%).
- Domestic (Female) Labour Positions were hard to find.
- USA Supreme Court declared racially based housing ordinances unconstitutional in 1917.
- Some residential neighbourhoods enacted covenants requiring white property owners not to sell to blacks.
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Growing Racial Tensions
- "Red Summer" of 1919 marked the culmination of steadily growing tensions surronding the Great Migration of black Americans from South to North.
- Many white servicemen returned home to find out that their jobs in factories had been filled by black Americans or immigrants.
- 64 Lynchings in1918 & 83 in 1919, eg: Tennesse, Omaha, & Chicago.
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A Drowning in Lake Michigan
- July 27th 1919- black American boy crossed unofficial barriers at 29th street.
- There were "black" & "white" beaches.
- Boy was stoned by white men.
- Angry crowds came story was spread and exagerrated.
- Police couldn't quell riots and left 15 whites & 23 blacks dead. 1,000 black famill=ies homeless.
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- Some believed that after the rioting there should be segregated housing/prevention of black Americans from white Americans. This was rejected by liberal white Americans and black Americans.
- the Chicago Commission on Race Relations (CCRR) tried to look at root causes for the rioting, eg: competiotion for jobs, inadequate housing for blacks, inconsistent law enforcement, and racial discrimination.
- Summer of 1919 showed that black Americans were willing to fight for their rights.
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Impact of Great Migration
- Many blacks were creating their own culture/cities within cities.eg: Harlem.
- The experience of the Great Migration became an important theme in the New ***** Movement and later in the Harlem Renaissance. (see booklet for more info)
- Migration slowed considerably in 1930s due to Great Depression. Picked up again in WWII.
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