Biotechnology B3.1

Notes on functional foods , yoghurt/soy sauce, and enzyme chymosin



  • Biotechnology refers to the use of living organisms in making products, for example, chemicals and foods.



  • Different microbes can be used to make foods, such as yoghurt and soy sauce.
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Functional Foods


  • Functional foods are produced by fermentation; others are not.


  • Functional food is a food where a new ingredient(s) have been added and the new product has a new function (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention).
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Healthy prebiotics

Prebiotics are non digestible functional foods.

They stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in the colon.

Contribute to your health beyond a normal balanced diet

Two examples of prebiotics : Plant stanol esters & Oligosaccharides

Plant stanol esters = produced commercially

Lower cholesterol - reducing risk of heart disease

Food manufacturers add plant stanol esters to spreads so they can promote them as being 'healthy'.

Oligosaccharides are short chain carbohydrates which stimulate growth of beneficial bacterial.

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Making Yoghurt

Bacteria are used in the production of yoghurt from milk.

The milk contains lactose sugar.

The bacteria ferment the milk changing it into yoghurt.

  • 1.The milk at the start is heated to 40 degrees celcius.
  • 2. Yoghurt bacteria is added.
  • 3. The lactose changes into lactic acid as the yoghurt bacteria causes fermentation.

The lactic acid gives yoghurt its sharp taste.

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Production of Soy Sauce

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thanx not bad

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