- Biotechnology refers to the use of living organisms in making products, for example, chemicals and foods.
- Different microbes can be used to make foods, such as yoghurt and soy sauce.
- Functional foods are produced by fermentation; others are not.
- Functional food is a food where a new ingredient(s) have been added and the new product has a new function (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention).
Prebiotics are non digestible functional foods.
They stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in the colon.
Contribute to your health beyond a normal balanced diet
Two examples of prebiotics : Plant stanol esters & Oligosaccharides
Plant stanol esters = produced commercially
Lower cholesterol - reducing risk of heart disease
Food manufacturers add plant stanol esters to spreads so they can promote them as being 'healthy'.
Oligosaccharides are short chain carbohydrates which stimulate growth of beneficial bacterial.
Bacteria are used in the production of yoghurt from milk.
The milk contains lactose sugar.
The bacteria ferment the milk changing it into yoghurt.
- 1.The milk at the start is heated to 40 degrees celcius.
- 2. Yoghurt bacteria is added.
- 3. The lactose changes into lactic acid as the yoghurt bacteria causes fermentation.
The lactic acid gives yoghurt its sharp taste.